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Transcript of Chemistry
Epistemology means the "theory of knowledge."
Unknowns and Knowns
Unknown-Known: Things that you do but dont know why.
Known-Known: Things you do and can explain.
Known-Unknown: Something you know that you don't know.
Unknown-Known: Something you don't know that's coming.
Justified, True, Belief
Three criteria you need to "know":
It has to be something that is true.
You must be justified.
You have to believe in it.
Socrates said this.
Chemical and Physical Properties/Changes
Scientists and Researchers
Nomenclature I & II
Significant Figures & Scientific Notation
Law of Conservation of Mass
Types of Reactions & Hydrates
Stoichiometry & Etc.
A property that characterizes the energy or matter and does not depend on the chemical.
*Must be in the 5 properties of matter.
Characteristics of a chemical and how the molecules that make up the substance can be rearranged or combined with other substances.
A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid Solid.
An irreversible chemical reaction involving the rearrangement of the atoms of one or more substances and a change in their chemical properties or composition, resulting in the formation of at least one new substance.
Distillation & Filtration
Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.
Filtration is the separation of solids from fluids by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Thomson began studying cathode rays, which are glowing beams of light that follow an electrical discharge in a high-vacuum tube.
When he passed the rays through the vacuum, he was able to measure the angle at which they were deflected and calculate the ratio of the electrical charge to the mass of the particles. He discovered that the ratio was the same regardless of what type of gas was used, which led him to conclude that the particles that made up the gases were universal.
Thomson determined that all matter is made up of tiny particles that are much smaller than atoms
In 1906, Thomson began studying positively charged ions, or positive rays.
In 1897, he discovered the electron and the isotope.
He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 and was knighted two years later in 1908.
Ernest Rutherford is known for his theory of the atom in his discovery of Rutherford dispersion with his famous Gold Foil experiment.
The gold foil experiment consisted of a series of tests in which a positively charged helium particle was shot at a very thin layer of gold foil. The expected result was that the positive particles would be moved just a few degrees from their path as they passed through the sea of positive charge proposed in the plum pudding model. The result, however, was that the positive particles were repelled off of the gold foil by nearly 180 degrees in a very small region of the atom, while most of the remaining particles were not deflected at all but rather passed right through the atom.
Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford proved that the hydrogen nucleus is present in other nuclei which he then led to the discovery of the proton.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Dalton said that "matter cannot be created nor destroyed" by the law of conservation of mass.
All substances are made of atoms.
All atoms for a given element are identical.
Atoms of different elements can combine in fixed proportions to form compounds.
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
Atoms are the smallest particles in existence.
John Dalton's Atomic Model
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its size and its electronic properties. The periodic trends are electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, melting point, and metallic character. Periodic trends, arising from the arrangement of the periodic table, provide chemists with an invaluable tool to quickly predict an element's properties. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
What Is It?
Electronegativity measures an atom's tendency to attract and form bonds with electrons.
From left to right across a period of elements, electronegativity increases.
From top to bottom down a group, electronegativity decreases.
If the valence shell of an atom is less than half full, it requires less energy to lose an electron than to gain one. If the valence shell is more than half full, it is easier to pull an electron into the valence shell than to donate one.
Ionization Energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous phase.
The ionization energy of the elements within a period generally increases from left to right. This is due to valence shell stability.
The ionization energy of the elements within a group generally decreases from top to bottom. This is due to electron shielding.
The atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms.
Atomic radius decreases from left to right within a period. This is caused by the increase in the number of protons and electrons across a period. One proton has a greater effect than one electron which then electrons are pulled towards the nucleus, resulting in a smaller radius.
Atomic radius increases from top to bottom within a group. This is caused by electron shielding.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
What is it?
Cations are always called (name of element) ion from group 1-3 on the periodic table.
Ex: Fe+3= Iron(III)ion
Roman numeral is the charge of the element.
Anions are the nonmetals.
Anions are (Name of element) then cut the ending and add "ide".
Ex: Chlorine = Chloride Oxygen = Oxide
Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Monoatomic Compound- When the cation or anion is only made of 1 element.
Polyatomic Compound- When the cation or anion or both is made of more than 1 element(s).
Metal + Nonmetal
A binary compound is a chemical compound that contains exactly two different elements.
All have a predictable naming schemes and all have negative charges.
Anything with an "H" in front, is an acid.
Ex: HPO3 or HCO3
Monoatomic Acids always use prefix "Hydro".
But use prefix "ic".
Polyatomic Acids use "ite" and "ate".
Anything ending in "ite" has "ous". Ex: Sulfurous
Anything ending in "ate" has "ic". Ex: Sulfuric
Sig Fig Rules
Any non zero number is significant. Example: 1567
Any zero between 2 non zeros is significant. Example: 5202
Any zero directly after a decimal point is sig. Example: 0.042
Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.
450670= 5 sig figs
4310006= 7 sig figs
0.012345= 5 sig figs
0.012056= 5 sig figs
What is it?
States that for any system closed for all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or changed.
*This is important especially when balancing in stoichiometry.
The law requires that during any chemical reaction reaction or nuclear reaction in an isolated system, the total mass of the reactants or starting materials must be equal to the mass of the products.
When balancing an equation only coefficients can be added or changed. Subscripts cannot be changed!
"Matter cannot be created nor destroyed"
1) H + O = 2H O
2 2 2
2) 2Fe + 3H SO = Fe (SO ) + 3H
2 4 2 4 3 2
2NaCl = 2Na + Cl
The 2's in front of NaCl and Na are co-efficients.
The 2 below Cl is a subscript.
3H + N = 2NH
2 2 3
In a synthesis reaction, two or more chemicals combine to form a more complex product.
Single & Double Replacement
A single-replacement reaction is a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another; one element is replaced by another in a compound.
Double replacement is a chemical reaction between two compounds where the positive ion of one compound is exchanged with the positive ion of another compound
Cu + AgNO3 = Ag + Cu(NO3)2
KOH + H2SO4 = K2SO4 + H2O
chemical reaction whereby electrons are removed from atoms of the substance being oxidized and transferred to those being reduced.
2 Mg + O2 = 2 [Mg2+][O2-]
separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance.
Combustion is a chemical reaction chemical that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent that produces energy, usually in the form of heat and light.
CH4 + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
Hydrates are chemical compounds that contain water molecules. A hydrate usually contains a specific proportion of water in relation to its weight.
Magnesium Sulfate Hepta Hydrate
Is a chemical substance that literally contains no water in it.
Example: CaCl2 is anhydrous
The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals. For example, the electron configuration of the neon atom is 1s² 2s² 2^6
What is it?
The s orbital set (any number in the electron configuration followed by an "s") a single orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, so each s orbital set can hold 2 electrons.
The p orbital set contains 3 orbitals, and thus can hold a total of 6 electrons.
The d orbital set contains 5 orbitals, so it can hold 10 electrons.
The f orbital set contains 7 orbitals, so it can hold 14 electrons.
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, 8s
Stoichiometry is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry is founded on the law of conservation of mass where the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products leading to the insight that the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of positive integers. This means that if the amounts of the separate reactants are known, then the amount of the product can be calculated. If one reactant has a known quantity and the quantity of product can be empirically determined, then the amount of the other reactants can also be calculated.
A substance is 5% carbon by mass. If the total mass of the substance is 10 grams, what is the mass of carbon in the sample? How many moles of carbon are there?
10g sample x (5g carbon/100g sample) = 0.5g carbon
0.5g carbon x (1mol carbon/12.011g carbon) = 0.0416 mol carbon
How many moles are in 4.5 grams of glucose (C6H12O6)?
6 x 12.00 amu + 12 x 1.008 amu + 6 + 16.00 amu = 180.1 amus = 180.1 g/mol
4.5 grams x 1mol/180.1=
The answer is .025 moles.
Empirical and Molecular Formula
Empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Molecular formula gives the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound.