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Timeline of Gender Roles in the U.S.
Transcript of Timeline of Gender Roles in the U.S.
Timeline of Gender Roles in the U.S.
1142 A.D. - European Contact: Haudenosaunee Society: Pre-Christian Influence
History of women's involvement in forming the Confederacy: Jikonsahseh and the Peacemaker
Matrilineal family structure
Duty as clanmothers
Right to veto laws, approve declarations of war and peace, death penalties, immigration policies, and right to take men out of leadership.
Allowed choice in reproductive rights.
Women decided on issues involving territory and where to build a community.
Women's everyday duties:
Harvesting corn/beans/squash and other crops, prepared food, planning ceremonies, faithkeeping, counseling, being a midwife, and being a medical advisor.
1700-1760: Colonial Era Gender Roles
Expected to maintain household order.
Primary instructors of religion in the home.
Women’s identities were always connected to the men in their lives. (Mrs. Patrick Lawler)
Only widows could own land.
Rural duties: spinning, weaving, and churning, taking care of children, milking cows, making cheese, butchering meat, gardening, making soap and candles, and mending clothes.
Women in cities: nurses, seamstresses, midwives, or “feme sole traders”.
Women not viewed as generally innocent. In all accounts of rape, the women’s reputation would suffer.
Could be "granted" a divorce under certain conditions.
Suffered from characterization of Eve in the Book of Genesis
Haudenosaunee Society: Post-Christian Influence
Repression of third gender individuals in boarding schools and mission churches.
Gender roles tightened a little
1980's to 2010's: Higher re-acceptance of third gender individuals in Haudenosaunee society.
1848- Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls (Declaration of Sentiments)
1850- First National Women's Rights Convention in Massachusetts
1869- National Women's Suffrage Association Founded
1890- Formation of the General Foundation of Women's Clubs
Women still expected to be homemakers
Prohibition-18th amendment (actually 1919)
19th amendment added to the Constitution under Woodrow Wilson
The Industrial Revolution
Home separate from workplace
Roles of husband and wife separated in space
Decline of agricultural work, rise in industrial jobs
Women take dominant role at home
"Breadwinner" vs. "Homemaker"
Cult of Domesticity
Men and Women in different "spheres"
1836- Women first admitted into college in the US
Peacemaker's establishment of the Confederacy
"Fathers are the protectors."
Duty as chiefs, faithkeepers, etc. (when called upon by women).
Men's everyday duties: building longhouses, providing security, became medicine men, hunting/gathering, trading, counseling, voting, made equipment for games and hunting, made instruments, and cleared land for planting crops.
The Third Gender
"Natural law not only allows but also encourages diversity in all things, including the sexual roles of human beings."
held in high esteem
Uniquely capable of caring for children, especially those of special needs.
Children who showed possibilities of becoming a "berdache" were encouraged to discover what sexual role they would play in their community.
At one point in life, they may have been sent to an isolated area to pray for a vision to guide them--a vision quest, in essence.
Closer to creative forces of nature.
1939-1949: War and Post-War
1939: Women took on traditionally male jobs
1942: "Rosie the Riveter"
1945-1949: End of WWII
Women laid off
Male employment increased
Women were expected to stay home, take care of the house and have babies
Welfare made "women's work"- repetitive, non-skilled labor
Only 30% of women were in college (48% in '89)
Men supported the family
Decade of sexism and repression
- FDA approves "The Pill"
- Equal Pay Act-men and women to receive the same pay for the same job at the same establishment.
- National Organization of Women
- Women's Strike for Equality
- Equal Rights Amendment passed
- Pregnancy Discimination Act
- First woman in Supreme Court- Sandra Day O'Connor
- First US woman in space- Sally Ride
-First woman nominated for VP, Geraldine Ferraro
- 9% of enlisted military personnel were women
- 60% women are in the workforce
- Glass Ceiling Commission- eliminate barriers that blocked women from advancements.
-Family and Medical Leave Act
-Year of Women
80% of jobs belonged to men
Women were responsible for supporting the family
- 16% of men are stay at home dads
29% of women
Women are making 80 cents to every dollar a man is
58% of women are in workforce and make up 48.9% of the workforce
Men's labor force participation (88%) is at the lowest since 1954 (98%)
Gender roles have evolved
Patriarchal and patrilineal society.
Boys attended grammar school and college (if financially able).
Men could vote and hold office. Usually, men who owned land could only vote.
Men represented their families in public.
Men's duties: tilled the soil, mowed the hay, cared for the livestock, made fences, and cut and hauled wood.
Men did not usually "break" any social rules due to their gender because they enjoyed all the freedom they wanted.
The Third Gender
Homosexuality is punishable