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The Mongols (and a little Turk) WHAP
Transcript of The Mongols (and a little Turk) WHAP
Early Career of Chinggis
After his father died, Temujin had slim pickings.
His small tribe was raided and Temijun was kidnapped.
After his escape, he joined a larger tribe and rose up the ranks/changed his name.
10 yrs later was named supreme khan (khagan) at the meeting of all mongol chieftans (kuriltai)
That War MACHINE!
Long-Distance Trade and Cultural Exchange
Slide to the West
Division of Empire
Fall of the Mongols
So, Ms. Harty. Why are the Mongols so important? And why do we keep waiting?
Kubilai Khan and China
Finally will conquer the Song Dynasty in S. CH.
Will create a delineation b/t Mongol and Chinese
Mongol spoken at top gov't level, no intermarrying, no civil service exam.
However, also have diffusion
use CH rituals, live in CH palace, worship ancestors.
New social rank: Mongols, nomadic allies and Muslims, then Chinese.
Mongol Culture in China
Women in Mongols could own property, go to war, influence policy, etc.
Did not change CH view of women.
Yuan court had scholars from all across Eurasia- Persian astronomers, Muslim doctors and architects.
Art and literature will flourish.
Very religiously tolerant.
Scholar-gentry Chinese hated the Mongols b/c Kubilai tried to raise status of artisans and merchants. Also wouldn't bring back cce.
However, they did approve of his system of cutting peasant taxes.
Conquests of Chinggis Khan!
Before he was 40, Chinggis controlled over 2 millions nomads and Mongols.
Started to conquer outside empires and cities.
At first, didn't know how to break into well-fortified CH cities, but a few stolen CH artisans and military commanders gave them the plans to make siege weapons.
If a city fought against the Mongols, they were slaughtered or sold into slavery. If they surrendered w/o a fight, they had to pay a tribute.
By 1227, empire from Persia to N. CH Sea
Culture of the Mongols
based units around tribes (kin-related clans) in which the leader was a strong male.
Women exercised power and influence, but men kept leadership positions.
Tribes would temp. team up if external threat.
Mongols and Islam
Hulegu invaded Abbasid Caliphate and murdered the caliph and his family (along w/ 800k in Baghdad).
Eventually Muslim slaves sold to Egypt, rose through the military ranks and attacked the Mongols in 1260.
Cooperation w/ Christian Crusaders to facilitate attack.
Led by Baibars and Mamluks.
New Khan in Golden Horde converted to Islam, keeping Hulegu from coming back to Muslim world.
Based on units of ten
10, 100, 1.000, 10,000 (tumen)
Now all tribes pledge allegiance to khagan, lessened local rivalries.
All army based around cavalry.
Short bows were lethal.
extensive use of spies to map out territory to invade.
In Mongol culture, bravery is a must, and is rewarded.
Messengers are strapped to horses to ride for days straight.
1. The Mongols created the largest empire the world has ever known, destroying many post-classical empires we have studied.
2. They brought effective use of gunpowder to Europe.
3. They made safe long-distance trade possible again on the Silk Roads.
4. Facilitated the spread of the most important epidemic disease- the bubonic plague.
Mongols rode camels, too.
They could ride them while asleep.
Food based around goats and sheep
milk and meat
Horse-riding was huge!
Learn to ride as soon as you learn how to walk.
wouldn't want to meet in a dark alley... or field.
Genghis was tolerant of other cultures.
He would often study the cultures of the lands he conquered, though he never lived in a city (capital at Karakorum).
Met with Confucian scholars on how to rule China
Met with Muslim scholars on how to build better siege weapons
brought safety to silk roads, which encouraged more trade, but also plague.
Batu led only successful winter invasion of Russia.
good for horses and river crossing
250 years of Mongol rule which started serfs in RU.
Led to rule of Moscow. Their power increased and eventually kicked Mongols out at B. of Kulikova in 1380.
Effectively cut off RU from EURO development and gave rise to more centralized rulers.
Yuan will start to crumble
Failed military ventures in Vietnam and Japan.
Kubilai's fav wife and son will die and no other successors will be capable to rule.
Leads to corruption of gov't officials --> peasant revolts. (deja vu, amiright?)
Famine on top of this led to formation of White Lotus Society to overthrow the dynasty. Also, Buddhist monk, Zhu Yuanzhang will lead a revolt in 1368... a peasant revolt...which will lead to the Ming Dynasty.
Chaos in CH until Ming Dynasty.
Rise of the Turks with Timur-i Lang.
Noble scholar and ruthless conqueror.
conquered Persia, Mesopotamia, India, and S. RU.
Known for barbaric destruction- pyramids of skulls, but spared artisans and scientists.
No increase in trade like Mongols.
Died in 1405 and ended his empire.
Chabi is bae
Them be Portuguese puppeteers
Pax Mongolica- Mongol Peace??