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Hemotoxins and Neurotoxins

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Kelsey Green

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Hemotoxins and Neurotoxins

Hemotoxins and Neurotoxins
Russell Viper
A Russell Viper is a snake that produces

is a toxin that destroy red
Blood cells, disrupt blood clotting, and
cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage
Just watch what happens when a tiny bit of venom
from a Russell Viper gets added to blood.
The toxin causes
which is
the destruction or dissolution of red blood cells with subsequent release of hemoglobin. It also
disrupts the bodies clotting mechanism.

is the destruction or dissolution of red blood cells with subsequent release or hemoglobin
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
starts to happen in the victim. The increased clotting uses up platelets and clotting factors in the blood. Platelets are blood cell fragments that stick together to seal small cuts and breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding. Clotting factors are proteins needed for normal blood clotting. With fewer platelets and clotting factors in the blood, serious bleeding can occur.
Internal bleeding occurs inside the victim. External bleeding occurs underneath or from the skin or
The victims blood pressure will also drop dangerously low from this affect.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body's small blood vessels
a mucus-secreting membrane lining all bodily passages that are open to the air, as parts of the digestive and respiratory tracts.
Another toxin in the hemotoxin venom is
. This toxin helps in the digestion process by breaking down proteins, destroying tissue also know as necrosis.
The area the snake bite is in will be affected by the necrosis. This tissue damage can not be reversed even with
a substance having a specific toxic effect on certain cells
is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. Antivenom is created by milking venom from the desired snake, spider or insect. The venom is then diluted and injected into a horse, sheep, rabbit, or goat. The subject animal will undergo an immune response to the venom, producing antibodies against the venom's active molecule which can then be harvested from the animal's blood and used to treat envenomation
If the victim is not treated with anti-venom with in a few hours it will result in death.
Even after the victim receives the anti-venom and the hemotoxin has been destroyed, the venom sometimes leaves damage to the
pituitary gland
, causing it to stop secreting
the vital homeostasis, this is called hypopltuitarism.

pituitary gland

is located in the center of the skull, just behind the bridge of the nose, is about the size of a pea. It is an important link between the nervous system and the endocrine system and releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and the system of reproduction.
Black Mamba
are a toxin that acts directly on the tissues of the central nervous system, traveling along the axis cylinders of the motor nerves to the brain.
is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles
Black Mambas produce a type of neurotoxin called dendrotoxin
Denrotoxins block particulare subtypes of voltage gated potassium channels in neurons, in result it enhances the release of
at neromascular junctions.
Voltage gated K+ channel
Methyl Groups
Carboxyl group
Hydrophobic and acidic
What is acetylcholine?
Organic molecule that acts as a neurotransmitter. It binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers , opens gated sodium channels in the cell membrane. The sodium ions then enter the muscle cell initiating a sequnce of steps that finally produce muscle contraction.
Voltage gated K+ channels control the excitability of nerves and muscles by controlling the resting membrane potential and by re polarizing the membrane during action potentials.
Dendrotoxins prolong the duration of action potentials and icrease acetylcholine relase at the neuro muscular junction, which results in muscle hyperexcitability and convulsive symtoms.
By blocking the exchange of positive and negative ions across the neuronal membrane leads to no nerve impulse, there by paralysing the nerves.
By Kelsey Green
Work cited
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