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The Invention of the Refrigerator
Transcript of The Invention of the Refrigerator
Jacob Perkins was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts on July 9th 1766. Jacob went to school in Newburyport till he was 12 and then was apprenticed to a goldsmith. Jacob married on Nov. 11, 1790 to Hannah Greenleaf of Newbury and they had nine children in his family. In 1790 at the age of 24 in Byfield, he created machines for cutting and heading nails. In 1795 he was granted a patent for his improved nail machines and started a nail manufacturing business. During the War of 1812 he worked on machinery for boring out cannons. He also started working on water compression and invented a bathometer that measured the depth of the sea by its pressure. Perkins also made several important innovations in printing technology, including new steel engraving plates. Perkins is also credited with the first patent for the vapor compresses refrigeration cycle on August 14, 1834. The idea had come from another American inventor, Oliver Evans, who conceived of the idea in 1805 but never built a refrigerator. The Perkins patent was X6662. He retired in 1843 and died in London on July30, 1849, at 84 years old. He was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery in London.
How it works: The vapor-compression uses a circulating liquid refrigerant as the medium which absorbs and removes heat from the space to be cooled and subsequently rejects that heat elsewhere. The circulating refrigerant enters the compressor. Then compressed to a higher pressure. The hot vapor is routed through a condenser where it is cooled and condensed into a liquid by flowing through a coil or tubes with cool water or cool air flowing across the coil or tubes. This is where the circulating refrigerant rejects heat from the system and the rejected heat is carried away by either the water or the air.
Function: The cooling process helps keeps the food fresh for a longer time. Refrigeration and freezing are the modern methods of preserving food. Before the refrigerator food was preserved with methods called pickling or salting. The refrigeration works because of the laws of thermodynamics. This law says when two surfaces of different temperatures come in contact with each other, the surface at higher temperature cools and the surface with lower temperature warms up.
Significance: Refrigeration is very important because it keep the harmful bacteria away from affecting our food. Refrigeration plays a vital role in helping us stay healthy. It is important to keep the refrigerators clean and safe and should be serviced at least once in a year. Refrigerators should stay at 41°F or below.
Impact on Society: Refrigeration has made a big impact on our society of the years. The refrigerator has made life much easier for anyone who is in charge of feeding themselves or their family. Being able to have various kinds of food right there in your kitchen all the time (not having to go to the store so often) is so convenient. Refrigerators were not introduced as a household appliance until 1911. The mass production of refrigerators did not start until World War II. Refrigerators were used to provide healthier foods to the frontline without spoiling them and for the concerns of soldiers’ health. Many years later, people began to realize that Freon (chlorofluorocarbons) can and were destroying our ozone layer. In the 1980s people became aware of the environmental problems. This then led to the more energy-efficient refrigerators and the elimination of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration sealed systems, these are the refrigerators we use today. Refrigerators are now the most used appliances in America. 99.5% of Americans own a refrigerator in their home