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MAN - Methodological Dimensions in Curriculum Development


Jenny Cabanto

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of MAN - Methodological Dimensions in Curriculum Development



Four basic questions in curriculum construction
(1) The educational ends with suggest both
(2) the educational experiences or learning opportunities, and
(3) their organization into organizing centers for learning
(4) the instruments for evaluation
Goals and Objectives
- are statements of curricular expectations
- are sets of learning outcomes specifically designed for students
indicate clearly what the students will learn after instruction has taken place
Goals and objectives are formulated and specified for the following purposes:
1. To have
on curriculum and instruction which give
to where students need to go.
2. To
meet the requirements
specified in the policies and standards of curriculum instruction.
3. To
the students the
best possible education
describe the students level of performance
4. To
monitor the progress
of students based on the goals set.
5. To
to learn and the
to be able to feel a sense of competence when goals are attained.
Educational Aims and Educational Objectives
Educational Aims:

(1) Specialized
(2) General
aims objectives
Educational Objectives
(1) educational objective
– derived from educational aim; formulated for students who are identified according to their level of education (primary,intermediate, secondary, collegiate, or graduate level)

(2) instructional objective
– suggested by an educational objective; meet the specific needs and interests of learners identified according to their level of education, their community, and their school or class.
Characteristics of educational objectives

(1) Comprehensive
(2) Consistency
(3) Attainability
(4) Feasibility
Function of Educational Objectives

- guide the making of curriculum decisions on what to cover, what to emphasize, what content to select, and which learning experiences to stress.
Guidelines in the Formulation of Educational Objectives
1. Educational Objectives must be
clearly conceived
and clearly stated.
“education for the development of a perfect gentleman”
2. Should describe both the kind of
expected and the
content or the context
in which the behavior applies
3. Complex educational objectives need to be stated
enough so that there is no doubt as to the kind of behavior expected
4. Educational Objectives should also be formulate that there are clear distinctions among
learning experiences
required to attain different behaviors
5. Educational Objectives should be
, representing roads to travel rather than terminal points
6. Educational Objectives should be reasonably
so as to include all the areas of growth, Sound education believes in the
total development of the learner
. EO should cover the
social life
mental development
, as well as
ethical life
7. Educational objectives should be
and should include only what can be translated into curriculum and classroom experience.
8. The
of educational objectives should be
enough to encompass all types of
for which the school is responsible
9. Educational objectives should reflect both
individual and group needs
10. Educational Objectives should be
11. Educational Objectives should be
limited to the aims and purposes
which the school is willing to assume.
Educational Objectives in the Philippines
Sources of Educational Objectives

1. Felt needs, social values, and ideals
2. Studies and researches made regarding learners and the learning process
3. Philosophy of education
Aims: Sec. 3 Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution

(1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the constitution as part of the curricula

(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
Article II Section 17 under State Policies of the present constitution states that

“The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development"
Article XV Sec. 1 – Family

“The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development.”
The Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education which conducted several studies on our educational system in 1970 has restated the national development goals and the goals of education as follows:
National Development Goals:
1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of
economic development
social growth
2. To assure the maximum participation of all the people in their attainment
3. To
strengthen national consciousness
promote cultural values
in a changing world.

Aims of Education
The educational system should:
1. Provide a broad
general education
that will assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his own society to –
a. Attain his potential as a human being
b. Enhance the range and quality of his participation in the basic functions of
c. Acquire the essential educational foundations for his development into a productive and versatile citizen
2. Train the nation’s manpower in the
required for
national development
3. Develop the
high-level professions
that will provide
for the nation, advance knowledge for improving the quality of human life
4. Respond effectively to the changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of
educational planning and evaluation
criteria other than objectives
validity and significance
Types of Curriculum Organization
(1) Traditional Curriculum Patterns
(2) Integrative Curriculum Patterns
(3) Unified Program
Scope and Sequence in Curriculum Organization
– total breadth if the activity in a
- determine the extent or limit of
activity or coverage
– the placement of curriculum content or learning experience from the standpoint of time
Guidelines in Curriculum Organization
1. should take into consideration the
needs, interests,
of the learners as well as the
social needs
of the appraisal of the products of instruction, both subject-matter achievement, and personal and social growth
2. provide for
in the learning experiences of the learners
3. should be organized as to permit the individual teachers and their learners to plan the
learning conformity
with the
general framework
of the curriculum which is cooperatively set up by the school and its staff.
Steps in Curriculum Organization
1. consideration of the educational aims to be achieved
2. formulation of educational objectives
3. selection and organization of the content
4. procedures or methods to be used to accomplish aims
5. the selection of references and materials to be used by the learners and by the teachers
6. the selection of reference and materials to be used by the learners and by the teachers
7. determination of specific grade outcomes and standards of attainment
> Curriculum organization
- systematic arrangement of content and educational learning experiences for the effective employment of human and material resources for the attainment of educational objectives
> Learning experiences
– selected and organized so as to fit into a larger whole and contribute to the development of those behavior traits that are desired
1. Traditional Curriculum Patterns

a. Subject-centered curriculum
b. Correlated curriculum
c. Broadfileds curriculum
2. Integrative Curriculum

a. learner-centered curriculum
b. experience curriculum
c. core curriculum
i. based on common problems, needs and
ii. based on teacher-student planned activities
without reference to any formal structure
3. Unified Program
Three things which determine the scope of the curriculum:
(1) the basic activities in which human beings engage
(2) values society fosters
(3) major problems society faces

Sequence is determined on the basis of the development needs of learners living in a given environmental community.
Scope of the Unified program in the elementary schools in the Philippines as suggested by the Bureau of Public Schools Bulletin No. 9, s. 1951p; and the sequence suggested by the UNESCO Consultative Educational Mission in the Philippines in its report in 1948.
1. Economic Security
2. Peace and Order
3. Hygiene and Sanitation
4. Home Beautification
5. Food Production
6. Recreation
7. Civic Life
8. Moral Life

4. provide for the development of
fundamental skills
direct teaching
and also
integrative activities
based on problems and needs of broad social significance.
5. done in such a way as to provide varied types of activities for a balance day of living for all learners
6. should be around a number of
big topics
problems, experience, or units
that bring in all necessary and related details where they belong logically associated and vitally related to the main thought.
and at the same time
in curriculum organization.
Types of Criteria used in evaluating the curriculum
1. Aims and Objectives as Criteria
- use of the school’s
own philosophy
educational aims
are set as standards

2. Achievement standards as criteria
- standardized

3. Comprehensive, Externally Developed Criteria
- adopted from some source
the curriculum development group
- reports and recommendations of
national, regional, and state groups

4. Locally Developed Criteria
- use of school
faculties’ own statement
- better understanding of curriculum and its evaluation
Steps in Evaluating the Curriculum
(Gronlund, 1968)
1. Identification of the instructional objectives or the exact learning results desired

2. If necessary, operational statement of these objectives, that is, specification of the process and content elements in case instructional objectives are precisely stated

3. Selection of instruments for measuring or description of learning results expected

4. Administration of the instrument and analysis of the outcomes to determins the extent to which the expected learning results have been attained.
Quantitative/numeral evaluation
- statistics based on how many words a learner can spell in a given list, or how many basic folk dance steps a learner can execute

Qualitative/verbal evaluation
- giving verbal descriptions of expected learning results
Evaluation thus proceeds from

(1) data collection activities (appraisal of student progress, ff-up studies, use of opinion polls, and experimental studies)
(2) data analysis
(3) interpretation
Techniques of Evaluation
(1) Formative evaluation
- student achievement or written tests are administered
during preliminary tryouts
of an educational program in order to improve a proposed curriculum.
- two kinds of observational instruments

a. Low-inference measures
– specific, identifiable, objective behaviors

b. High-inference measures
– frequent counts record (consistently, sometimes, seldom, etc.)
(2) Summative Evaluation
terminal evaluation/judgment of a finished product
a. comparative evaluation (Pophan, 1968)
i. identification of the
instructional objectives
ii. grouping the objectives according to (a) those
common to both
programs and being compared,
(b) those
unique to one program
, and (c) those
unique to the other program
iii. development of
test items
for each category of objectives
iv. putting together the three sets of test items in a three-part examination.
v. assignment of
to the three sets of objectives
vi. assignment of a
random sample
of students to each of the two programs being compared
vii. selection of the appropriate program on the basis of the performance of the
learners on each section of the examination and the values assigned to each part
b. noncomparative techniques
Payoff evaluation
– examination of the effects of the instrument or curriculum on student learning by comparing the results of pre- and post- tests or determining the relationship between the scores of the experimental group and those of control group on specified criteria
Intrinsic Evaluation
– assessment of the educational program or the curriculum itself
Cost-Benefit Study
– figuring out of the opportunity cost, that is, the cost of foregoing the next best alternative
*not a single method but a complement of methods in evaluation must be used in making a decision on the appropriateness of a curriculum package
Some marks of a good curriculum which may be used as criteria for evaluation purposes given by J. Galen Saylor:
1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated.
 A definite organization is responsible for coordinating and planning and evaluation.
 Steps in planning and evaluation are logically defined and taken.
 Ways or workings utilize the contributions of all concerned.

2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school.
 The faculty has defined comprehensive educational aims.
 The scope of the curriculum includes areas related to all stated aims.
 Each curriculum opportunity is planned with reference to one or more aims.
 In planning curriculum opportunities from year to year and in each area, teachers consider the total scope of aims.
3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school.
 The curriculum gives attention to each aim commensurate with its importance.
 The total plan of curriculum opportunities in basic areas, school activities and special interest reflects careful planning with respect to all aims.
 The total plan of curriculum opportunities in basic areas, school activities and special interest reflects careful planning with respect to all aims.
 Guidance of each individual helps provide him with a program which is well-balanced in terms of his needs and capacities.
 The school organization, schedule, and facilities help in giving appropriate attention to each aim.
 Classroom activities and schedules are arranged so as to provide a balanced program of varied learning activities.
4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience.
 Provisions are made for the smooth transition and continuing achievement of pupils from one classroom, grade or school to another.
 Curriculum plan in areas which extend over several years are developed vertically.
 Classroom practices give attention to the maturity and learning problems of each pupil.
 Cooperative planning and teaching provide for exchange of information about pupil’s learning experiences.
5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular situations and individuals.
 Curriculum guides encourage teachers to make their own plans for specific learning situations.
 Cooperative teaching and planning utilize many opportunities as they arise to share learning resources and special talents.
 Time allotments and schedules are modified as need justifies.
 In accordance with their maturity, pupils participate in the planning of learning experiences.
 The selection of learning experiences reflects careful attention to the demands of the learning situation.
6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resources available.
 Learning experiences are developed so that pupils see purpose, meaning and significance in each activity.
 Needed available resources are utilized at the time they are relevant and helpful.
 Use of the right learning resource for each pupil is encouraged.
 Teachers discriminate wisely between activities which pupils carry on independently and those in which teacher-pupil interaction is desirable.
7. A good curriculum makes maximum provision for the development of each learner.
 The program provides a wide range of opportunities for individuals of varying abilities, needs, and interests.
 Extensive arrangements are made for the educational diagnosis of individual learners.
 Extensive arrangements are made for the educational diagnosis of individual learners.
 Self-directed, independent study is encouraged wherever possible and advisable.
 Self-motivation and self-evaluation are stimulated and emphasized throughout the learning opportunities of the school.
 The curriculum promotes individual development rather conformity to some hypothetical standard.
 The school attempts to follow up its former students both as a service to them and for evaluative data.
New Trends in Curriculum Development

Jennylyn C. Cabanto, RN
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