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Mitosis

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by

Sergio Flores

on 13 September 2013

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Transcript of Mitosis

and
Mitosis
Interphase
For most cells, the majority of their life is spent in interphase. It is during this time that the cell carries out most of its normal functions, such as growth and protein synthesis. Interphase has three stages called G1, S and G2. In many tissues, such as in the brain, most mature cells will remain in interphase throughout their lives.
Prophase
In prophase the chromosomes become more coiled and can be viewed under a light microscope.

- Each duplicated chromosome is seen as a pair of sister chromatids joined by the duplicated but unseparated centromere.

- In the cytoplasm, the mitotic spindle, consisting of microtubules and other proteins, forms between the two pairs of centrioles as they migrate to opposite poles of the cell.

-The nuclear envelope disappears at the end of prophase. This signals the beginning of the sub stage called prometaphase.
Metaphase
During Metaphase the chromosomes, pulled by the spindle fibers, line up along the middle of the cell, halfway between the centrosomes in the middle of the dividing cell.
Anaphase
During anaphase the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart by the spindle and dragged by their kinetochores toward opposite poles of the cell. Each chromosome is pulled along by its centromere. Formally, this phase begins when the duplicated centromeres of each pair of sister chromatids separates, and the resulting "daughter chromosomes" begin moving toward the poles. As the separated chromosomes move away from each other toward the poles, the cell elongates and the poles themselves move further apart.
Telophase
During telophase the chromosomes have reached the poles and they begin to uncoil and become less condensed. Two new nuclear envelopes begin to form around each of the two separated sets of unreplicated chromosomes. As decondensation of the chromosomes proceeds, the nucleoli forms once again. By the end of telophase, the cell has divided in two along the plane defined by the furrow. In terrestrial plants a flat cell plate forms halfway between the two separated sets of chromosomes, dividing the cell into two daughter cells.
Mitosis
Daunorubicin
Daughter cells
Either of the two cells formed when a cell undergoes cell division by mitosis. Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell because they contain the same number and type of chromosomes.
Daunorubicin
Daunorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is gven as a treatment for some forms of cancer, mostly forms of leukemia such as acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia

G1 First gap
G1 is the period in the cell cycle from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. In this phase the cell expands and grows in mass to prepare itself for the next phase.
S Phase
After the G1 phase the cell has enlarged and expanded the amount needed to replicate its DNA. At the completion of this stage, all of the chromosomes have two chromatids and it is ready to move onto the second gap or G2 phase.
G2 Second Gap phase
After the DNA has been replicated the cytoplasmic organelles replicate in preparation for the cell to divide during mitosis. The DNA is then checked by enzymes and then repaired.
Mitosis is a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Mitosis has Five Phases:
-Interphase
-Prophase
-Metaphase
-Anaphase
-Telophase
By: Sergio Flores and Austin Poulnott
P53 and its relationship to cancer
P53 is Short for Protien #53 whicn is a special protien that supresses tumor growth and is crucial in multicellular organisms. If this protien is not being produced as it should or there is a defect in the production of this protien it may cause the tumors to be unsuppressed leading to them going malignant and cancerous.
Cell types killed by Daunorubicin
-lymphomatis cells
-leukemia cells
-Red blood cells
Side affects of Daunorubicin
Common:
-low white blood cell count with increased risk of infection
-nausea
-vomiting
-decreased platelet count with increased risk of bleeding
-hair loss
-darkened fingernails and toenails

Less common
-radiation recall skin changes
-rash
-fetal changes if taken while you are pregnant or if you become pregnant while taking this drug
-anemia (low red blood cell count)

Rare
-temporary changes in electrocardiogram (EKG)
-loosening of fingernails
-fever
-chills
-abdominal pain
-high uric acid level in the blood, which can worsen gout
-tumor lysis syndrome, kidney damage
-heart damage with shortness of breath, swollen feet and ankles, which can happen months or years after treatment*
-irregular heartbeat
-sores in mouth, throat, or on lips, usually a few days after doxorubicin
-severe allergic reaction
-leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, which may happen years after treatment

Category of chemotherapeautic agent
Daunorubicin ia an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. Anthracyclines are among the most effective anticancer treatments ever developed and are effective against more types of cancer than any other class of chemotherapeutic agents, their only major drawbacks are that they may cause cardiotoxicity and thats limits their use
Phase of mitosis or cell prevented by chemotherapeutic agent
Daunorubicin works to prevent cell growth by preventing DNA replication. The exact mechanism of this effect is still being studied by chemists and molecular biologists. One theory is that anthracycline antibiotics intercalate into the double strands of DNA, this could disrupt the DNA and thus DNA replication.
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