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Civil War Prisoner of War Camps

This prezi explores the historical facts regarding Civil War Prisoner of War camps. The prezi details the major camps, typical conditions, Andersonville Prison specifically, mortality rates of the camps, and finally eyewitness accounts of POWs.
by

Sydnie Landry

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Civil War Prisoner of War Camps

Typical Conditions in the Camps Dysfunctional Major POW Camps Confederate Andersonville Prison Camp/ Camp Sumter Confederate Prison Camp in Andersonville Georgia
Commanded by Captain Henry Wirz
Parallelogram stockade with pine log walls on 16 1/2 acres
Incomplete when first prisoners arrived
Designed for 10,000 men
Built as a result of the failure of prisoner exchange
Stockade Branch - drinking, bathing, and sewage water
Confederacy unable to provide prisoners with food, medical care, and housing
Prisoners lived in tents
Small rations
Disease
Only in operation for 14 months
Notorious for the high mortality rate Mortality Rates 30,000 Union Soldiers died in captivity. 4th hour - American Wars Civil War Prisoner of War Camps Andersonville
(Camp Sumter) Georgia Libby Prison Virginia Belle Isle Virginia Florence
Stockade South Carolina 50,000
Men 18,000
Men Union Point Lookout Maryland 52,000 Men Camp Louis Illinois 18,000 Men Fort Delaware 12,500 Men Elmira Prison New York 12,000 Men Libby Prison Belle Isle Prison Camp Andersonville Point Lookout Elmira Prison Fort Delaware Over-crowded Disease ran
rampant. Starvation & Malnutrition Poor sanitation No shelter lacked funding typhoid
cholera
smallpox
malaria dysentery
scurvy
diarrhea
gangrene Dix-Hill Cartel
Prisoner Exchange
failure Rations included:
“one and one-fourth pound of corn meal and either one pound of beef or one–third pound of bacon occasionally supplemented with beans, peas, rice, or molasses” make-shift tents
in most cases Mortality Rate at Andersonville Approximately 13,000 prisoners
died out of the 45,000 total prisoners Highest mortality rate of all Civil War POW camps 28% Mortality rate Eyewitness Accounts “The weather has been rainy and cold at nights. Many prisoners have died from exposure, as not more than half of us have any shelter but a blanket propped upon sticks. ... Our rations have grown smaller in bulk too, and we have the same hunger as of old”

- Private Robert Knox Sneden referring to Andersonville 12% mortality rate 26,000 Confederate Soldiers died in captivity. 15.5% mortality rate Approximately 56,000 American men
lost their lives in Civil War POW Camps Guard & Prisoner
Brutality Depression &
Suicide Dix-Hill Cartel Prisoner Exchange Agreement Officers A. Dix &
Daniel Harvey Hill Set a prisoner exchange standard
July 22, 1862 named Dix-Hill Cartel 10 days after capture, all
prisoners had to be released
- exhanged or paroled 1 General = 46 Privates 1 Colonel = 15 Privates 1 Lieutenant = 4 Privates System failed because Union benefited more from not exchanging prisoners, and African American soldiers weren't given the same exchange rate.

Led to overpopulation & building of larger prisons Why Not Deliberate The Union and Confederate inability to provide: food
shelter
medical care
clothing because of a lack of funding & resources Jessica Hooper

Sydnie Landry

Macy Sanders Wirz was hanged November 10, 1865 “Our provisions were very much short of the necessary. If cooked rations were issued we would get a piece of corn-bread about 2” x 2” x 3,” the meal being ground cob and all, coarser than one in the north would buy for his horse, a few beans (perhaps one-half pint) and a couple of ounces of pork or bacon”

- Union Sergeant Clark N. Thorp referring to rations at Andersonville “the gums would become black and decayed and, in my own case, with long and sharp finger nails I could gouge away parts which were in such condition as to be exceedingly offensive to the smell. A dropsical swelling of the flesh would take place and I could pull the flesh of my feet out of shape or press an indentation into the flesh and it would remain in that shape until action replaced it”

-Union Sergeant Clark N. Thorp referring to his bout with scurvy at Andersonville Typhoid Fever :
Bacterial infectionspread through ingestion of food/water containing feces of contaminated persons. Cholera:
infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea and vomiting Smallpox : contagious disease which causes delirium, diarrhea, high fever, rashes, vomiting Malaria: parasitic disease that causes high fever, flu-like symptoms, and anemia spread through mosquito bites Dysentery: inflammatory disorder that involves severe diarrhea after ingestion of contaminated food/water Scurvy : vitamin C deficiency which causes spots on skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from mucus membranes Gangrene : death of tissue due to loss of blood supply
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