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deborah davies

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Deborah E. Davies

Researcher & climate change communicator
Western Norway Research Institute/ Vestlandsforsking

Climate Adaptation Plan
Examples from around Europe
(WNRI) Western Norway research institute
Adaptation in Action
An overview of practical and early examples of actual adaptive actions already taking place across Europe.

CIRCLE-2 coordination, www.circle-era.eu

Due care, at the right time
Wrong investments are not made
Investments are recouped as an element in the development of green growth
Greatest possible synergy with other planning
Flexibility in relation to changes in the projections for the climate of the future
Climate adaptation measures represent quality in themselves for the city’s people and businesses
Adaptation takes place on the basis of analyses at a high technical level
Overall control of the climate adaptation of the city takes place
Thursday, May 7, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Legacy of Extreme Events ?
Adaptation Norway
Hazards are expected to get worse.

Demonstration project
EU funded NPP - Clim-ATIC
Potential for effective, reliable cost-effective MHEWS

Tested in Aurland municipality in Sogn og Fjordane

Demonstrate how modern technology can reduce the negative impacts of climate change by reducing risks
Climate Adaptation
FOTO: Arne Veum/NTB Scanpix
Its goal is to ensure…
Key Considerations for Successful Climate Adaptation Measures
Drafting of the City of Copenhagen Climate Plan in 2009,
Principal challenges and five initiatives were identified

1. Develop methods to discharge water during heavy downpours
2. Establish green solutions to reduce the risk of flooding
3. Increase the use of passive cooling of buildings
4. Protect against flooding from the sea
5. Prepare a combined climate adaptation strategy
Green air
Plants can help
regulate indoor temperatures
of buildings.
Sustainable air-conditiioning used to
offset the Heat Island Effect.
Tested in the

Biohof Achleitner in Austria

The plants cool between 2.3 - and 16.2 watt per square metre: a
reduction in temperature of two degrees Celsius
during the summer
"Snøskred over veg, Napefonn, Sogn og Fjordane"http://forskning.no/meteorologi-vaer-og-vind/2008/02/med-datakraft-mot-skred
Green infrastructure
Researcher and activist
Kamal Meattle
shows how
three common houseplants
, used in specific spots in a home or office building, can result in measurably cleaner indoor air.
His vision is to reshape commercial buildings in India using principles of green architecture and sustainable upkeep -
massive banks of plants instead of massive banks of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) equipment.
Green energy
Example Actions and Strategies
Multi-Hazard Early Warning System
Cool buildings
Retain rainwater
Reduce energy needs
Verticle gardens - climbing wire
Sidewalk garden - community owned
Green wall - technical challenge
Stuttgart lies in a caldera in the South-West of Germany
Two river valleys flow into the city and are a flood risk due to potential cloud bursts.

The area has weak winds, and little ventilation making it more vulnerable to rising temperatures and heat wave events.

The city has had a history of poor air quality which it has tired to remedy since the 1930's.
Green ventilation corridors
Construction bans at strategic places
Climate Atlas
The photovoltaic (solar) panels provide shading, beneficial for summer crops in cases of excessive heats or droughts.

Agri-voltaic scheme
Montpellier, 2.000 square metre site, a land use return of 1.6 calculated (Inra)

Reduced at stress and irrigation demands

Ventilation to stop the solar panels overheating

Climate Adaptation Plan
The climate adaptation plan adopts a development scenario in line with the
scenario as presented by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Ministry of Climate and Energy in Denmark recommended that municipalities apply the
scenario for planning in relation to climate change over the next 50 years.

This recommendation came after work on the Copenhagen plan had been carried out

What are these different scenarios?
Using IPCC Scenarios
The Emissions Scenarios of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES)

A1. The A1 storyline and scenario family describes a future world of very
rapid economic growth
, global
population that peaks in mid-century
and declines thereafter, and the rapid introduction of
new and more efficient technologies

Major underlying themes are
convergence among regions
, capacity building and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income.

The A1 scenario family develops into three groups that describe alternative directions of technological change in the energy system. The three A1 groups are distinguished by their technological emphasis: fossil intensive
(A1FI), non-fossil energy sources (A1T), or a balance across all sources (A1B) (where balanced is defined as not relying too heavily on one particular energy source
, on the assumption that similar improvement rates apply to all energy supply and end-use technologies).

A2. The A2 storyline and scenario family describes a very heterogeneous world. The
underlying theme is self-reliance and preservation of local identities
. Fertility patterns across regions converge very slowly, which results in continuously increasing population. Economic development is primarily
regionally oriented and per capita economic growth
and technological change more fragmented and slower than other storylines.

Examples from around Europe
Adaptation in Action
An overview of practical and early examples of actual adaptive actions already taking place across Europe.

CIRCLE-2 coordination, www.circle-era.eu

2010 Stuttgart's land-use plan motto =

1992, Stuttgart published its first
climate atlas ( latest version 2008)
topography and buildings influence the flowthrough of air.

The surrounding hills, forests and the agricultural areas constitute the main sources of fresh air for the city.

Recommend the following goals for climate-friendly spatial planning should be pursued:

Improvement of habitat conditions with regard to comfort/bioclimate
Improved aeration of settlement areas
Increase of fresh air supply through local wind systems
Reduced emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases
Evaluate existing and expected pollution
Employ adaptation of use concepts
Since 1930's Stuttgart has had a
Department for City Climatology

It has been following two strategies:

Fresh Air & Greens

Expands its forests and parks

Subsidises green architecture
green roofs, facades, inner courtyards and tracks.

Utilises the latitude differences in the caldera in combination with
fresh air aisles kept free of construction
to allow cool air to fall into the city during the night and carry away air pollutants.

Looks to
implement feasible steps
& planning conceptions that
increase readiness for adaptation
to climate change on the whole and, once set, determine
concrete actions
75 Years of Municipal Climatology
Conservation of Green Space
23% of the district of Stuttgart is covered by forests

Multifunctional forestry- additional focus on leisure use & climate protection.

Large sections of the forest are landscape protection areas preserved under the Flora-Fauna-Habitat (FFH) Directive of the European Union

Public parks and green spaces cover approximately 4% (around 1,100 ha)

Stuttgart uses wood that is a by-product of landscape conservation in the city to heat public buildings.

Each year 18,000 cubic metres of wood and tree cuttings are collected by the city's gardeners.

The city previously disposed of the biological waste, at a large cost to the council.

It selected three buildings from the city's 1,400 public buildings to have wood-chip heating facilities installed - a school, an indoor swimming pool and the city gardens.

They have enough room to store the wood and accept deliveries.

Tool to guide adaptation measures
Biomass in the heart of the city
Land-use Planning in Climate Impact Management

Developing ways to avoid negative impact on people, their livelihoods, economic activities and places by reducing their vulnerability to climate impacts.
Adaptation is about doing things differently because of climate change.

Examples of adaptation
Changing building codes = make constructions more resistant against hurricanes, Building infrastructure to protect communities against increased flooding,
Relocating buildings to higher ground
Making changes in land use = switching to more drought-resistant crops, substituting intensive with extensive agriculture.
LUP Adaptation

Assessing vulnerabilities and impacts related to climate change
Identifying and prioritizing adaptation options, often from a cross-sectoral perspective, and governing the implementation of adaptation.

Vulnerability mapping
- based on the analysis of observed and projected climate data, included in the analytical phase.
vulnerable zones are identified
, alternative uses and adaptation options can be discussed jointly and agreed upon by all
– with
support from experts

By considering climate change, land use planning can be made resilient and contribute to adapting to climate change.
It enables site-specific adaptation e.g. by adjusting the assessmentof guiding parameters like land suitability for different purposes.

Reflections/Lessons Learned/Critical Assessment:
Climate change adaptation requires enhancing skills
of land use planning experts and involving relevant actors in the process.
Overarching national or regional policies and strategies for adaptation have been developed which either provide the mandate for or can be supported by climate-sensible land use planning.

Mitigation involves attempts to slow the process of global climate change by lowering the
level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.


Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the air and store it in the soil or in their trunks and roots.

Global efforts for mitigation are prerequisites for sustainable development.
LUP Mitigation
Land use planning can be used to reduce deforestation and forest degradation by
limiting agricultural expansion and conversion of forests to pasturelands, infrastructure development, destructive logging, fires etc.

Land use planning can also be used to identify areas for carbon sequestration (as an environmental service for which farmers could receive a payment),e.g. through afforestation or for the introduction of agroforestry.
Methodological Approach:
Integrating mitigation into land use planning may not require the introduction of new tools.

It requires awareness of the potentials of land use planning.

During land use planning, areas of current deforestation
or forest degradation can be identified, different future scenarios discussed and more sustainable uses defined, decided upon and passed on areas for afforestation or the production of “clean energy” could be identified.

Apart from environmental improvements, municipalities and individual land users can benefit from payments for environmental services – depending on national laws.

Reflections/Lessons Learned/Critical Assessment:
Land use planning could be used much more to get the topic of climate change on the agenda and to provide tools for participatory planning and decision-making concerning
measures to mitigate climate change.

Relevant complementing Measures and Tools:
„ Analysis of observed and projected climate data drawing on
climate databases
Impact assessments;
Cost-benefit analysis;
„ Climate proofing tools to systematically assess climate impacts on project or policy objectives in the planning and implementation phase.
Climate impacts
Great distances between peripheral communities
Vulnerable Infrastructure = communities more vulnerable to extreme weather events

Multi-hazard early warning systems utilising various media and communication tools
Inform the public about impending hazards, provide guidance on the precautions to take, initiate evacuations more efficiently.
Reducing the risks of personal injury, loss of life, and damage to property and the environment.

Stakeholder Engagement
Project reference group was established in August 2008
Consulted 4 times between 2008 and 2010.
The County Governor of Sogn og Fjordane – PROJECT MANAGER
The Western Norway Research Institute and University college Sogndal
The Norwegian Energy Resources and Water Directorate
The National Public Roads Administration, E-CO Hydro Power
Telenor, The Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority,
Norwegian Broadcasting
The Norwegian Police, Sogn og Fjordane District + Alarmsentralen
The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning
Municipalities, local Health Trusts and NGO = RED CROSS
Unified Messaging Systems (UMS)
(The leading supplier of advanced message handling in Northern Europe, offering services for alerting the population in case of critical incidents);

Adaptation Options Implemented
Testing of a MHEWS Early
Crisis Management Crises
Disaster Management Systems and Plans
Fixed and Mobile phones + social media (Facebook)
Voice and text (SMS) messages - language determined by SIM
Technical soluation available - budget set the limits
Dissemination exercises before the demonstration/ test day
The warning exercise on the 10 June 2010 was held in parallel with a table-top exercise focusing on local authorities’ ability to respond to extreme weather events
A post-exercise survey was carried out online and a door-to-door survey was conducted in the area to assess the public’s thoughts on the exercise.
Following the demonstration project, the warning system has not been implemented yet; neither locally nor on a national level.

Success and Limiting Factors
Project demonstrated how an existing county-encompassing organization could be used to issue the population warning - ALARMSENTRALEN
The project demonstrated that modern warning system technology can be combined with existing infrastructure and organizational patterns to enable local authorities to issue population warnings in a cost-effective and sustainable way.
Technical aspects of people-centred warning systems are at large readily available,
Confidentiality legislation and system regulations must be addressed
There are legislative barriers in terms of confidentiality rules that prevent geographic data collected by telemobile companies from being shared publicly. = this information could be crucial for fast deployment of emergency services and therefore needs to be changed.
Further research needs to be carried out on the opportunities and restrictions connected with the use of social media during crisis situations.

The future
Mentioned in reports by the National Defence Committee and DSB
Still the project has not been implemented following the demonstration project.

Life Time
There is not a defined lifetime for early warning systems as long as these are updated and maintained operational.
Methodological Approach:
Impacts and adaptation needs are very different from location to location; therefore, land use planning has an important role to play in adaptation to climate change.
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