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World War II
Transcript of World War II
The End is near
When is the cost of
Over 60 million people would die.
100 Million people would fight during World War II
It was the deadliest conflict in human history.
Benito Mussolini takes control in Italy.
Adolf Hitler takes control in Germany
worth the price of victory?
So what caused so many humans to risk their lives and...
Italy becomes a fascist state.
Hitler and the Nazi party set out to create the perfect human race
Munich Pact: Germany keeps land and promises to stop.
The nonaggression pact allows Germany to invade Poland and begin World War 2 .
Using Blitzkrieg, Germany conquers Poland in just 17 days.
1936 - 1938
Hitler re-occupies the Rhineland, annexes Austria, and the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia
"... in order to remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy ..." 1925
Hitler also believed that Germany required Lebensraum ('living space') in order to survive.
1939 - Germany negotiated a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union.
But Hitler still wanted to expand.
could not win a war on both its eastern and western boarders.
What led the world to War?
A series of unfortunate events...
So why did Hitler invade other countries?
Hitler captures Denmark and Norway.....and
These actions violated the Treaty of Versailles. How will the world react?
By the summer of 1940,
and Germany had concurred most of Europe.
His next target was Great Britain and their Prime Minister Winston Churchill...
Turning Point (Battle of Britain):
1. Great Britain didn't surrender to Germany.
2. This was Hitler's first setback.
Germany invades the Soviet Union
Problem: What about the Japanese-Americans living in the United States?
...meanwhile Japan was expanding its control over Asia
5 million military personnel
50% of aircraft
Nearly all Tanks
Was interment justified?
1941: Operation Barbarossa
1 million soldiers
50% of aircraft
50% of tanks
1. Germany lost a substantial amount of troops and supplies.
2. Germany was in retreat.
"December 7th, 1941, a day that will live in Infamy"
After Pearl Harbor, the United States ends neutrality and enters the war.
The U.S. Government forces Japanese-Americans to leave homes and re-locate to internment camps.
The surprise attack made many Americans nervous
What was life like in Internment Camps?
By 1941, two alliances had formed.
The Axis Powers:
Germany, Japan, and Italy
Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain
And in 1941 Japan set its sights on the United States
The Allies push back
The second front split German resources
While Americans were soul searching at home, Military leaders were searching for a winning strategy in Europe.
The Allies gain momentum
The Allies capture Rome and defend Stalingrad.
Hitler's days are numbered:
More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over coastal Normandy immediately in advance of the invasion.
By nightfall, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore, securing French coastal villages.
5000 boats transported over 160,000 men and nearly 30,000 vehicles
800 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over the coast of Normandy in advance of the invasion.
13,000 aircraft supported the invasion.
Turning Point (D-Day):
1. Took the Western Front back from Germany control.
2. Gave the Allies a clear path to Hitler in Berlin.
A surprise German attack on the Allied Forces.
The Battle of the Bulge
Goal: to divide the allies
and get them
. . . these men came here - British and our allies, and Americans - to storm these beaches for one purpose only, not to gain anything for ourselves, not to fulfill any ambitions that America had for conquest, but just to preserve freedom. . . . Many thousands of men have died for such ideals as these. . . but these young boys. . . were cut off in their prime. . .
When the battle was over...
100,000 German causalities
90,000 U.S. causalities
3. The remaining German forces had no back-up and could not hold back the Allies.
1. German lost all of its reserve army units.
2. The Luftwaffe had been destroyed.
On their way to Berlin, Soviet and American troops liberated concentration
Within a few months of the Battle of the Bulge, Mussolini was captured and murdered by the Italian people while Hitler committed suicide on April 30th, 1945
The Battle of Britain
May 8, 1945 V-E Day
As the Allies celebrated their victory over Germany and Italy...
... they turned their attention toward Japan
The Fragile Peace begins to break
Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles by invading the Rhineland and Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia
The Japanese Army invades Manchuria
The League of Nations does nothing to stop these actions.
Mussolini invades the independent area of Abyssinia in Africa.
European leaders chose a strategy of Appeasement.
The Munich Pact
"the policy of settling problems through negotiation and compromise, avoiding armed conflict which would be expensive, bloody, and possibly dangerous."
The Treaty of Versailles has been violated. What should France and Great Britain do?
Marshal Admiral of Japanese Navy
General of Imperial Japanese Army
Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004 to honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the conflict
Location of the 10 Internment camps
FDR DIES; TRUMAN PRESIDENT
President Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day
On April 12, 1945, FDR suffered a stroke and died – his VP Harry S Truman became the nation’s 33rd president
Famous picture of an American soldier celebrating the end of the war
Nazi General commits suicide.
Losses were extremely heavy on D-Day
Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at Normandy, France
Jerome camp in Arkansas
1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war
2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe
3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations
Japan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainland
So Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb
General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich
On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day – victory in Europe Day
The war in Europe was finally over
Heinrich Himmler Suicide
Nazi Alfred Freyberg and his family, all committed suicide by poison.
In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler prepared for the end
On April 29, he married his longtime girlfriend Eva Braun then wrote a last note in which he blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it
The next day he gave poison to his wife and shot himself
ALLIES TAKE BERLIN; HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE
While the British and Americans moved eastward into Germany, the Soviets moved westward into German-controlled Poland
The Soviets freed all of death camps in Poland
The Americans liberated many Nazi concentration camps including Dachau.
LIBERATION OF CONCENTRATION CAMPS
Landing at Normandy
Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers
The power of the German submarines was great, and in two months' time almost two million tons of Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs' activities.
After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent food and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast
He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic
During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. ships
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC
Today the U.S. is home to more than 1,000,000 Japanese-Americans
U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS TO JAPANESE
When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast
After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans
In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans into 10 relocation centers
INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS
Herman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial.
He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.
The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes
The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany
“I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison
NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS
In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSR
A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe
General MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima
The island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on Japan
It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth
Allied and Japanese forces suffered heavy casualties
Resounding victory for the Allies
Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of Hawaii
Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the Island
The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes
THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY
The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians
In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-day Battle of the Coral Sea
BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA
The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich
Japan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and significant territory in China
THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen)– the Allies were closing in
Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive
Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines
BATTLE OF THE BULGE
General George Patton (right) was instrumental in Allies freeing France
By September 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg
That good news – and the American’s people’s desire not to “change horses in midstream” – helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4th term
D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land
D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history
Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach
Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles
FDR and Churchill in Casablanca
1) Plan amphibious invasions of France and Italy
2) Only unconditional surrender would be accepted
Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory
Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center
In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union
By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea
The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad
U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January 1944. Almost two-thirds of all U-boat sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic.
In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic
Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost
First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies
Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats
Airplanes were used to track the U-boats on the ocean surface
With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U-boats
ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS
Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthur
During the seven-year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery
Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution
THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN
At the White House, President Harry Truman announced the Japanese surrender on August 14, 1945
Japan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was dropped
General MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death . . .the entire world is quietly at peace.”
The plane and crew that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN
In the Battle for the Philippines, 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 more
The Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward Japan
Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks
Pilots in small bomb-laden planes would commit suicide by crashing into Allied ships
KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES
The Battle of the Bulge was Germany’s last gasp
The battle raged for a month – the Germans had been pushed back
Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses
Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes
The Nazis are defeated and from that point on they could do little but retreat
BATTLE OF THE BULGE
Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here
Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France
It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944
ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE
Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all-black 99th squadron – the Tuskegee Airmen
The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations
American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat German and Axis forces
an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942
Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers in Algeria
They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led by German General Edwin Rommel
THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT
Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR
They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan
After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths
President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan . . .
Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad
For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad.
Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms.
The Germans surrendered in January of 1943.
The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. suffered in all the war).
In the late 1980s, President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp
The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past . . . we now recognize that serious wrongs were done to Japanese Americans during WWII.”
Operation Torch: Allies invade Africa
FDR and Churchill met in Casablanca and decided their next moves
The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily
However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy
Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN – ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY
Mussolini’s Last Plea
The war was going badly for Italy, the Allies had landed in Sicily and the future looked bleak.
On September 12, on Hitler’s orders, Mussolini was rescued from his mountainside captivity by SS paratroopers and whisked away to Germany in a glider.
Having met with Hitler, Mussolini was returned to Italy and set up as the head of a Fascist republic in German-occupied northern Italy.
The following day the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III, dismissed Mussolini. He was immediately arrested and imprisoned. The Italian population rejoiced.
On September 8, Italy swapped sides and joined the Allies. Italy’s wish to remain neutral was vetoed by Churchill who demanded Italy’s cooperation against the Germans as the price for the “passage back.” On October 13, 1943, Italy reluctantly declared war on Germany. Immediately, the Germans started capturing Italians as prisoners of war, shipping them to internment camps and began the targeting of Italian Jews.
On July 24, 1943, at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council, Benito Mussolini delivered an impassioned two-hour speech, exhorting his fellow fascists to put up a fight.
His plea fell on deaf ears, the Council instead voting to propose peace with the Allies.
The Daring Rescue
Soldiers on both sides who retreated were shot on site...
July 25th, 1943 Mussolini is overthrown and imprisoned
September 8th: Italy switches sides and joins the Allies
(Dec. 7, 1941)
September 1, 1939
“At this moment you are the most hated man in Italy.”
Luftwaffe - German Airforce
D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944
What nations seemed to have been freed by the Allies in 1942?
The Race to Berlin
Funeral of inmates after liberation of Auschwitz
Thomas E. Dewey
Franklin D. Roosevelt
By April 1945, with the Allies advancing north through Italy, Mussolini knew the end was in sight.
Together with his mistress, Clara Petacci, and a few followers, Mussolini fled and headed for the Swiss border.
Stopped by Italian partisans on April 26, Mussolini’s attempts to disguise himself with a Luftwaffe overcoat and helmet had failed.
The Fleeing Dictator
On April 28, 1945, at the picturesque Lake Como, the partisans stopped the car; pushed Mussolini and Petacci out, and ordered them against a wall.
Whilst the partisans pronounced the death sentence, Petacci flung her arms around Mussolini and screamed, “No, he mustn’t die.”
Five bullets and Mussolini was no more. Seconds later, Petacci was also dead.
Their bodies were heaped into the back of a van, together with those of Mussolini’s last followers, and transported to Milan.
Petacci had not been wearing knickers and a group of old women rearranged her skirt to preserve her modesty.
People surged around, desperate to get a look, to laugh and spit upon them, wanting to make sure that it was true: Mussolini, fascist dictator of Italy for 23 years, was truly dead and Italy could live again.
A Rusty Beam
In the city their bodies were delivered to the Piazzale Loreto, the scene of a mass execution of partisans the year before.
The corpses were beaten and urinated upon and finally left to hang upside down, for public display, from a rusty beam outside a petrol station.
By April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed Berlin
THE YALTA CONFERENCE
(L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta
Truman warned Japan in late July 1945 that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction”
On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on Japan
ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPED
The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea
In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa
The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamen
Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers
THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA
The War in the Pacific
The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan
American soldiers plant the flag on the Island of Iwo Jima after their victory
August 6, 1945
August 9, 1945
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total dead.
Over 60 million people were killed, which was over 3% of the 1939 world population (est. 2 billion).
World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total dead ranging from 50 million to more than 80 million. The higher figure of 80 million includes deaths from war-related disease and famine.
Civilians killed totaled from 38 to 55 million, including 19 to 25 million from war-related disease and famine.
Total military dead: from 22 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting with around 6,000 dead in total. Over 100,000 American military personnel died in the Pacific War.
Killing of Jews at Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942. A woman tries to shield a child with her body as Einsatzgruppen soldiers aim their rifles
Dead Soviet soldiers, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war.