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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers
Transcript of Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers
Computer or Digital Literacy is the knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses. This chapter will start you out with how to understand and keep current with computes A World of Computers A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept date, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use. What is a Computer? Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
Information conveys meaning and is useful to people. Data and Information A Computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known as hardware
Input Device- any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer. They include a keyboard and mouse
Output Device- any hardware that conveys information to one or more people. Three commonly used output devices are a printer, monitor, and speakers Components of a Computer Information Processing Cycle The series of input, process, output, and storage activities. System Unit- contains electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.
Two main components on the motherboard are the processor or CPU, and the memory. The CPU interprets and carries out instructions, while the memory store basic instructions waiting to be executed. Advantages: Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Speed:When data, instructions, and information flow along electronic circuits in a computer, they travel at incredibly fast speeds. Many computers process billions or trillions of operations in a single second. Reliability: The electronic components in modern computers are dependable and reliable because they rarely break or fail. Consistency: Given the same input and processes, a computer will produce the same results consistency. Computers generate error-free results, provided the input is correct and the instructions work. Storage: Computers store enormous amounts of data and make this data available for processing anytime it is needed. Communications: Most computers today can communicate with other computers, often wirelessly. Computers allow users to communicate with one another. The Components of a Computer Continued Disadvantages: Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Violation of Privacy: In many instances, where personal and confidential records stored on computers were not protected properly, individuals have found their privacy violated and identities stolen. A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on storage media. Examples of this are USB's, hard disks or memory cards. A storage device records or retrieves items to and from storage media Public Safety: Adults, teens, and children around the world are using computers to share photos, videos, journals, music, and other personal information. Some of these unsuspecting computer users have fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous strangers. A Communications Device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send and recieve data, instructions and info to and from one or more computers. Impact on Labor Force: The skills of many people have been replaced by computers. It is important that employees keep educated in technology. Health Risks: Improper computer usage can lead to health injuries or disorders. You can protect yourself from these injuries through proper workplace design, good posture, and breaks. A network is a collection of computer and devices connected together, via communications devices and transmission media. When a computer connects to a network, it is online. Networks allow computer to share resources, such as hardware.
The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. The internet is full of endless possibilities and has many uses. Networks and the Internet Impact on Environment: Computer Manufacturing and wastes are polluting our environment. Green computing involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer. Computer Software *Software, also called a program, is a series of related instructions, organized for a common purpose, that tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them. * System Software: consists of the programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices. It serves as the interface between the user, application software, and hardware. Two types are the operating system and the utility system. * Operating System: set of programs that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices. when a user starts a computer, portions of the operating system are copied into memory from the hard disk. * Utility Program: allows a user to perform maintenance- type tasks usually related to managing a computer. Web or World Wide Web- one of the more popular services on the internet contains Web Pages that can contain text or graphics.
A Web site is a collection of related web pages.
Millions of people join online communities called social networking Web site or an online social network. They encourage people to share their interests, ideas, or thoughts.
A blog is an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles in a diary or journal format
A microblog, like twitter, allows users to publish short messages usually between 100 and 200 characters.
A podcast is recorded audio stored on a website that can be downloaded to a computer or iPod
Web application is a web site that allows users to access and interact with software from any computer or device that is connected with the internet.
Web 2.0 refers to Web sites that provide a means for users to share personal information like networking web sites. Networks and the Internet Continued * Application Software: Consists of programs designed to make users more productive and assist them with personal tasks. A widely used type of application software related to communications in a Web browser, which allows users with internet to access web pages. * Installing and Running Programs: When purchasing software you receive a box that includes an optical disc that contains the program. Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardware. * Software Development: A programmer, sometimes called developer, is someone who develops software that directs the computer to process data into information. Categories of Computers There are 7 categories: 1. Personal Computers/desktop 2. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices 3. Game Consoles 4. Servers 5. Mainframes 6. Supercomputers 7. Embedded Computer A personal computer is a computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself.
A Desktop computer is designed so that the system unit, input devices, output devices and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table Personal Computers Notebook Computers Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Also called laptop, portable personal computer often designed to fit on your lap. They are also very thin. Netbook: type of notebook computer but smaller and less powerful. Tablet PC's special type of notebook computer you can interact with by touching the screen with your finger or a digital pen. A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single player or multiplayer video games. Popular models include the Xbox 360, Playstation 3, or Nintendo Wii. Game Consoles Servers A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously. They store huge amounts of data, instructions, and information. Mainframe A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer, and the most expensive. The fastest supercomputers can process more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second. Supercomputers An embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product. Embedded computers include Consumer electronics, Home automation devices, automobiles,process controllers and robotics, and computer devices and office machines Embedded Computers In an increasing number of homes, a computer is a basic necessity. Each family member, or home user, spends time on the computer for different reasons. These include personal financial management, web access, communications, and entertainment. Examples of Computer Usage A small office/home office(SOHO) includes any company with fewer than 50 employees, as well as the self-employed who work from home Increasingly more employees and students are Mobile users, who work on a mobile computer or device while away from a main office, home office, or school
Another Category of user, called a power user, requires the capabilities of a powerful desktop computer, called a workstation. Examples include engineers, scientists and architects.
Each customer or employee who uses a computer in an enterprise is called an enterprise user.
Many large companies use the words, enterprise computing, to refer to the huge network computers that meets their diverse computing needs Examples of Computer Usage Continued Education- many schools and companies equip labs an classrooms with computers. Students use software to assist with learning or to complete assignments.
Finance- Many people and companies use computers to help manage finances. With online banking, users access account balances, pay bills and copy monthly transactions from the bank's computer. Investors often use online investing to buy and sell stocks and bonds, without using a broker Computer Applications In Society Health Care- Nearly every area of Health Care uses computers
-Doctors uses e-mail, web, and medical software to assist with researching and diagnosing.
-Pharmacists use computers to file insurance claims
-Robots deliver medication to nurse stations in hospitals
-Hospitals and doctors use computers and mobile devices to maintain and access patient records. Computer Applications in Society Continued Through telemedicine, health-care professionals in separate locations can conduct live conferences on the computer. With telesurgery, a surgeon performs an operation on a patient who is not, located on the same physical room as the surgeon Computer Applications in Society Continued Publishing- the process of making works available to the public.
Travel- many vehicles manufactured today include some type of on board navigation system. Some mobile users prefer to carry specialized hand held navigation devices.
Manufacturing- Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) refers to the use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly Mobile Devices Small enough to carry in a pocket, usually store programs permanently on memory inside the system unit or on small storage media such as memory cards. Smart Phones and PDA's Internet enabled phone that usually provides personal information management functions such as a calendar, an appointment book, and address book, a calculator, and a notepad.
Text: short note, less than 300 characters.
Instant message: real time internet communication where you exchange messages with other connected users.
Picture message: photo sent to or from a smart phone or any other mobile device.
Video message: short video clip sent to or from a smart phone. E-Book Reader Handheld device that is used primarily for reading e-books. E-Books are electronic versions of printed books. Handheld Computers A computer small enough to fit in one hand Portable Media Players Mobile device on which you can store, organize, and play digital media. The End