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North Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia
Transcript of North Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia
Central Asia Chapter 18 North Africa,
Southwest Asia, and
Central Asia Chapter 19 North Africa,
Southwest Asia, and
Central Asia The Arabian Peninsula North Africa Architecture, like mosques and palaces, provide some of the best examples of art.
Because Islam discourages living figures in art, Muslim artists work in geometric patterns and floral designs as well as elaborate scripture from the Quran which adorn mosque walls.
Many Muslims celebrate Id al Adha, the Feast of Sacrifices, by making a pilgrimage to Mecca. Or Ramadan, the holy month of fasting from dawn till dusk. The Arts and Celebrations Most children and young people in this region attend school.
Some countries like Kuwait and Qatar have a 89%-93% literacy rate and are especially focused on developing a trained workforce.
Health care varies widely from country to country and even more so from rural to urban areas.
Sometimes people have to rely on private groups or other health care services. Education and Health Care Sunni and Shia Muslims are dominate sects in throughout most of the Arabian Peninsula, they believe in making a pilgrimage, the hajj, to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.
Another sect of Islam, Ibadism, differs from the Shia and Sunni in that they practice moderate conservatism and choose their ruler by communal consensus.
Islam influences the language of the Arabian Peninsula. Religion and Language The countries of the Arabian Peninsula gained independence slowly.
The United Arab Emirates formed groups of tribal sheikhdoms, or territories ruled by and Islamic religious leader.
Conservative Saudi government follows Shari’ah law based on the Quran
The countries of Kuwait and Qatar are constitutional emirates ruled by emirs, or princes.
New economic and political movements in some countries, such a Qatar, have raised the standards of living and introduced democracy. Independence The history of the Arabian Peninsula is quite ancient; some of the earliest civilizations existed in the area between 1100’s B.C and A.D 500’s.
In 1750 a powerful local family gained control of the area and struggled to control it from invasions by the Ottoman Empire
The Unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was finally established in 1932. Early Culture and Conquests The harsh climate of the Arabian Peninsula has led most of its people to settle on the coasts.
The overall density is 34 people per square mile.
The Bedouin people are nomads who have adopted to the desert by roaming the vastness for water and grazing lands to feed their herds.
The discovery of oil in the 1990’s led to increased wealth, modernization, and immigration into the Arab countries Density and Distribution Most of the population is Arabs and Muslims but there exists a small percentage of Christians.
Many Arab speaking people today descend from ancient groups like the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Saharan Berbers and other Semitic peoples.
Many migrated to the Arabian Peninsula after the discovery of oil there in the 1990’s. The people The earliest peoples of North Africa expressed themselves through the arts and continue to do so today.
Weaving, embroidery, and metal working in the region are influenced by Islam.
The Egyptians built extravagant tombs and created magnificent works of gold and marble. The Arts Most young people in North Africa attend school.
Primary education is free and enrollment is increasing.
Health care has improved in recent decades and often attend government-owned hospitals for medical treatment.
Tribal families often seek the healing of witch doctors as is custom. Education and Health Care When Arabs invaded North Africa they brought the religion of Islam.
Most belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, which believe that leadership should be in the hands of the Islamic community at large.
Followers of Islam are required five times a day to kneel to the ground and pray in the direction of the holy city of Mecca
As Islam spread more non-Arabic Muslims learned Arabic to read the Quran. Today, Arabic is the region’s main language Religion and Language Egypt gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1922.
Algeria gained independence from France when a nationalist movement led to a civil war in the 1900’s. Another civil war in the 1990’s killed over 100,000 people. Independence Seventh century invasions of Arabs heavily influenced the cultures of North Africa.
European colonial rule, such as the French of the mid-1800’s, also affected the culture.
During this time a well-educated urban middle class with a strong sense of nationalism emerged which led to demands for self-rule. Invasions Hunters and gatherers settled throughout North Africa by the end of the last ice age, about 10,000 years ago.
About 6000 B.C farmers in the Nile region domesticated plants and animals.
The advanced Egyptian civilization used a 365-day annual calendar and hieroglyphics about 6000 years ago. Early Peoples and Civilization Geographic features such as the availability of water have influenced settlement.
90% of Egypt’s population live in the Nile Delta region.
Egypt’s primate city, Cairo, dominates social and cultural life in the country. Density and Distribution Primary influence is a mix of Indigenous and Arab cultures.
The people before Arab invasions were known as Berbers, who were nomads.
The other principal ethnic group is the Arabs.
Bedouin are Arabic-speaking people who migrated to North Africa from Southwest Asia The People Education is compulsory and free (majority of young people attend school)
Healthcare has improved in recent years. Hospitals are now government-owned Education and Healthcare Majority of people in Islam follow the Sunni
Arabs in Syria and Lebanon follow the Shia
Followers of Judaism and Christianity make up only a small percentage of the population.
Jews live in Israel
Christians live in Lebanon and Syria as minorities
“Western dress” is becoming more popular
Hebrew and Arabic are official languages in Israel Religion and Language After the birth of Israel, wars forced many Palestinians, Arabs, and Jews to become refugees
Status of refugees as an ongoing issue in the Arab-Israeli dispute
(1990) Palestinians are getting closer to self rule and acknowledging Israel’s right as a nation.
Israel is moving toward troop withdrawal and handing authority to the West Bank and Gaza t the Palestinians. Israelis and Palestinians After being expelled from their homeland by the Romans, Jews settled in communities around the world
In the late 1800, Zionists (Jewish) called for a return to their homeland
Hostilities broke out between Jews, Arabs, and British forces after WWII
In 1947, Jews agreed to divide Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state, but Arab rejected.
Jews proclaimed Israel when the British withdrew
Arab opposition to Israel led to 6 wars Arab-Israeli Conflicts Islamic empires rose and fell in Eastern Mediterranean.
Geography placed limits on economic developments
(ex. Empires lacked resources like minerals, wood, and coal to fuel industrial revolution) Independence and Conflict Islam-In A.D. 610, revelations came from God to the merchant Muhammad
Began teaching that people should turn away from sin and turn towards the one true God.
Followers claimed he was the last in a line of prophets
Had religious, political, and cultural influences Christianity- Jewish Jesus began preaching and gathering followers in A.D. 30
Jesus said that those who believed in him would go to Heaven
The Christian Scripture includes the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
New Testament contains writings of the teaching of Jesus as well as Christian communities Judaism- oldest of the monotheistic faiths
Trace their origin to ancient Israelites. Jerusalem is capital
Teaches obedience to God’s law and a just society.
Recorded in Hebrew Bible which consists of the Torah, the book oh prophets, and sacred writings Religion as History Dry desert climate causes the population in Mediterranean to live along the costal planes and Euphrates River.
Lack of water coupled with small land and significant human population create the highest population densities in South West Asia. Density and Distribution Jews trace their religious heritage back to the Israelites, who settled Cannon in ancient times. They believed that God gave this land to them as a permanent homeland.
(Wars, forced exiles, persecution, and trade scared them away)
Israel was founded as a Jewish state in 1948
Arabs didn’t want a Jewish state in their territory. Tension resulted in wars. Population Patterns Monotheism- belief in one God
Mosque- Muslim house of worship Content Vocabulary Section 2 Eastern Mediterranean The people have expressed themselves through arts an architecture. Inspiration is found in religion.
Muslims scholars wrote about Islamic achievements and translated Greek writings into Arabic.
Syrian arts and scholary works rivaled those of Mesopotamis and influenced Roman culture The Arts Section 1 Rich literacy tradition
In the 1800’s and late 1900’s great novelists emerged. When the region fell under the control of the Soviet Union the arts suffered. The Arts Education is universal across Central Asia and mandatory through secondary schools
Healthcare resources are lacking in Central Asia since the break up of the Soviet Union.
Years of internal civil strife and economic challenges have left few financial resources to be spent on social programs. Education and Healthcare Vast majority of Central Asia speaks a from of the Turkic languages
Armenian, Tajik, and Afghan Persian and Pashto are Indo-European and are spoken in Armenia, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan.
Islam is the predominant religion, and most Muslims practice the Sunni branch. Language and Religion Afghanistan is home to many ethnic groups that reflect centuries of migration and invasion.
More than 50 ethnic groups and nationalities live in the Caucasus areas.
Turkic people outside of Turkey live in Central Asia. Including the Uzbeks and Kazakhs. The People Central Asia Population of Central Asia is spread unevenly because of the mountains.
Large populations do exists in countries unlike Afghanistan with 28.4 million people.
1915, millions of Armenians in Turkey were deported, killed, or died of disease because of the Ottoman Turks. Density and Distribution Section5 Section 4 Western Europe controlled areas of the Northeast by the last 1800s
Britain controlled Iraq until 1932
Ottoman Empire came to an end during World War I
Turkey was established in 1923
Now a candidate to join the European Union
1979- nations secular government was overthrown during the Islamic revolution
Natural boundary-mountains dividing Iran and Iraq (Zagros Mountains) The Modern Era Turkey
Migrated to the peninsula in the A.D. 1000s from Central Asia
Ottoman Turks built the Ottoman Empire which ruled for over 600 years
Practice Islam and speak Turkish
73 million people
Speak Farsi (Persian)
Practice shia brand of Islam
Live in mountainous boarders of Turkey, Iraq, and Iran
Speak Kurdish ( related to Farsi) The People The Northeast Early civilizations created sculptures, fine metal works, and large buildings
Literature is based on strong oral traditions, epics, and poetry
Sumerians built large, mud-brick temples called Ziggurats (shaped like pyramids) The Arts Required through 6th grade in Iraq
And 9th grade in Turkey
Literacy rate is 77% in Iran and 87% in Turkey
Before the revolution less than 50% of Iranians could read or write Education Countries There was a discovery in the Persian Gulf in the early 1900s but didn’t bring riches right away
1950s- Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela formed the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
1973- OPEC imposed an embargo
Embargo-restriction on oil shipments to the U.S. and other industrialized countries The Era of Oil Mesopotamia- land between the Tigris and Euphrates river
Culture Hearths- centers where cultures develop and spread outward
Fertile crescent- large, rich agricultural region
Cuneiform- wedge-shaped symbols written on clay tablets
Persian Empire- during the 500s B.C. extended across the region
Qanats- underground canals to deliver water from the mountains to their farmlands, made by the Persians Civilizations and
Empires Turkey and Iran- more than 70 million people each
Iraq- 30 million
Overcrowding due to rapid influx Density and
Distribution 1998- the worlds longest telecommunications highway opened
A cable that follows the silk road
Provides 20 countries along its path with digital circuits for voice, data, fax, and video transmissions
The Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA)- extends form Europe, across the Black Sea, Through the Caucasus Mountains, and the Caspian sea to Central Asia
Made to promote peace and regional cooperation, enhance access to world markets, develop corridors for land lock countries, and open access to newly discovered oil and gas deposits Two New Silk Roads The Economy Commodities- economic goods of the region, petroleum and oil are the main exports
Hold 60% of the worlds oil
Holds 50% of the worlds natural gas reserves
2/3 of the worlds petroleum reserves
“ Black Gold”- raw material for everyday products- compact discs, crayons, and house paint Industry Arable- regions land suitable for farming
Afghanistan is 12% arable, 80% of people farm for a living
North Africa and Southwest Asia have a Mediterranean climate, they grow citrus fruits, grapes, olives, and dates
Central Asia provides fertile soil for growing crops and grassland for grazing livestock
Fish are very important
Uzbekistan is one of the worlds largest cotton producers
Azerbaijan’s exports are wheat, cotton, potatoes, and tea Agriculture and Fishing Section 3 Section 1 Libya’s Man-Made River uses 2 pipelines that carry water from the Sahara to farms near the Mediterranean.
Phase One: Pipeline that carries water across eastern and western Libya.
Phase Two: The other pipeline carries water to areas near Tripoli
Phase Three: Link all the pipelines The Great Man-Made River Aquifers- underground layers of porous rock, gravel, or sand that contain water
Water from N. Africa, SW Asia, and Central Asia comes from rivers, oases, and aquifers
As populations grow the demand for water resources.
There are only 6 major rivers in the region, and only a few are freshwater and used for irrigation Water Resources Section 2 People and Thier Environments Desalination- removing salt from water
Limited water resources called for a way to remove salt from salt water
Countries near the Persian Gulf depend heavily on desalination plants. The cost for these plants are expensive. Desalination The End