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Fungal microscopy

BI 525: Field Biology
by

Jeffrey Mann

on 4 July 2018

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Transcript of Fungal microscopy

Introduction to Fungal Microscopy
The identification of similar traits is a fundamental process for the study of living organisms
Four traits that are useful and serve to demonstrate fungal taxonomy:
The spore bearing structure is the major characteristic that separates the two major phyla in the kingdom Fungi. The two main groups of fungi are Basidiomycetes (Basydiomycota) and Ascomycetes (Ascomycota).
Spore Bearing Structure
Haploid Basidiospores
Basidia
Transversal Haploid Ascospores
Ascus
unituncate-operculate
Ascus Morphology
"single walled with a lid"
unitunicate-inoperculate
"single walled with no lid"
Morchella
Hypomyces lactifluorum
bitunicate
Apple scab
Basidia Morphology
Generally if you have basidia you will be working with the spores not the basidia itself
Three different sets of terminology have evolved describing elaborations on the shape of those individual ornamentation:

round in outline,
pointed in outline
follow lines or ridges.
Spore Morphology
Rounded ornamentation include range bump-like outgrowths from wrinkled to stellate. Including (size): wrinkled, rugose, verruculose, verrucose, warty, tuburculate, nodulose, and stellate.
Round in Outline
Rugose (grosse-rugosa)
Cortinarius argyrionus
Spore with broad, even, annulate warts
Warty
Caeoma rhododendri-capitati
Scleroderma stellatum
Stellate
Spore Reference
Plate 1. Basidiospores. Figs 1–6: Amylaria himalayensis, type, differently ornamented spores; Fig. 7: Bondarzewia mesenterica, L 4857; Figs 8–9: Dichostereum effuscatum CBS 516.80 (Fig. 9 a spore and hymenial surface) ; 10–11: Heterobasidion annosum J.A.S. 103; Fig. 12: Scytinostroma arachnoideum Lowe 9250 (K) . Bar represents 1 μm. [p. 20]
Pointed ornamentation includes features that are abundant and sharply pointed or spiny. They include a range of outgrowths including: asperulate, echinulate, echinate, and aculeate.
Pointed in Outline
Aspurulate
Rustula integra
Echinate
Uredo vulcani
Eurotium repens (sp.)
Aculeate
Ornamentation following lines or ridges encompasses a more broad group of characteristics including ridges, wings, net-like forms and pitted structures. These include striate, reticulate and pterate. Spores differ dramatically in ornamentation and nomenclature.
Follow Lines or Ridges
Striate
Reticulate
Pterate
Characterized by parallel side walls and long shape.
Filiform thin and easily missed
Cylindrical fatter and pronounced
Filiform/Cylindrical
Ventricose bulges in the middle
Subventicose are intermediate between Cylindrical and Ventricose
Ventricose/Subventricose and Capitate
The morphology of the hyphae is an important feature in fungal identification. Clamp connections are one of many hyphal features that can be observed and compared.
Hyphea: Clamp Connections
Clamp Connections
A clamp connection is formed in the terminal segment of the hyphae during elongation. In this phase, a dikaryotic hyphal segment (depicted with green and orange dots in figure 1) elongates as each nucleus in the cell undergoes mitotic division. This creates two sets of daughter nuclei in the cell. A clamp develops that bridges between the front end of the cell and the middle. As the clamp forms it takes with it one of the daughter nuclei (green) and places it between the other set daughter nuclei (orange). Once this process is complete a septum forms between in the middle of the cell to form two new dikaryotic cells.
Clamp Connections
Since fungal features very widely from taxa to taxa it is useful to see many different variations of significant structures over a wide range of individuals. Similarities can only be judged by inference to other like structures, therefore a broad view of morphological traits needs to be established.
Dr. Richard Homola, student of Alexander Smith and a specialist of Basidiomycetes
Richard L. Homola
September 16, 1999
Richard L. Homola, 65, of Orono, Maine, formerly of Northampton, died Sept. 2 at home. He was the husband of Alma (Dykstra) Homola. They were married for 37 years in June.

He was a teacher for the University of Maine from 1966 until retiring in 1994.

A graduate of Muhlenberg College, he received a master's degree from the University of Vermont and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.
Jeffrey Mann
Science and Research
Margaretville Central School

Presentation Boundary:
This presentation is for recreational use
This is not a comprehensive presentation, but a starting point for further research
This is intended to be a starting point from a compassionate educator to a forgiving audience of co-conspirators
Presentation Objectives:
Identify a few major microscopic features that act as reference points for classification
Identify Defining Features of Phylum
Basidiomycota and Ascomycota
Observe the variations of ascus, basidium, spores,
and cystidia
Observe gap junctions in several variations
Features cannot be assessed directly but need to be inferred by comparison
Organism features are rarely binary
Practice is needed to identify similar features
Spore Bearing Structure
Spore Features
Cystidia Morphology
Hyphal Clamp Connections
Basidia Morphology
Two Major categories : septate and aseptate
Auricularia auricula judae
Cantharellus cibarius
caprinus camatus

Coprinus comatus
Large sterile cells found interspersed with basidia on the surface (pleurocystidia) or edge (cheilocystidia) of the lamella
Cystidia
spores of the type specimen of Amylaria himalayensis, demonstrating the variability. The spore on Fig. 1 is irregularly warted, Fig. 2 shows spines, but also a few ridges, Fig. 3 show warts, flattened spines and small ridges, and Fig. 4 ridges consisting of concrescent flattened warts; Figs 5 and 6 show ‘typical’ spores with ridges and no warts at all.
Pterate
Eurotium repens (sp.)
Aculeate
Amylaria himalayensis
STALPERS, J.A.. 1955. The Aphyllophoraceous fungi — II Keys to the species of the Hericiales. Studies in Mycology, No. 40
Spore with broad, even, annulate warts
Warty
Caeoma rhododendri-capitati
http://www.westerdijkinstitute.nl/publications/1040/content_files/content.htm
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