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Western Civ 11-The Rise of the Nation-State

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Margaret Peacock

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of Western Civ 11-The Rise of the Nation-State

The Rise of the Nation State

The Congress of Vienna, Jean Baptiste Isabey, 1819
The period after the Congress of Vienna saw a marked attempt to turn the clock back.

The Congress of Vienna: Turning Back the Clock
Interactive Map
They decided to rim big countries with defensible borders by shuffling little countries around in defiance of local desires.

They divided up Europe among the remaining great powers.

The European state system devised by the Congress of Vienna worked for 99 years, but that does not mean that everybody liked it.

Dividing up Europe
The Consequences of the Congress of Vienna
The Holy Alliance
The five great powers (England, France, Prussia, Austria, Russia) get together to stave off the threat that liberalism and nationalism would again erupt into revolution. This is called the Congress System, as embodied in the Troppau Protocol.

The Congress System and The Holy Alliance
The Holy Alliance succeeds in restoring the powers of the aristocracy and the church in Spain and France.
The Holy Alliance and the Pope succeed in abolishing Napoleonic reforms, turning the papal states into a police state.
Ferdinand is then restored to the throne by the French
Dauphin, Louis-Antoine
After the general Rafael de
Riego leads a mutiny.
Ferdinand VII is imprisoned in
1820 -
Revolutions over the ideas of liberalism and nationalism and the increasingly harsh repressions of an ancien regime erupt in Central, South, and Eastern Europe.
Southern Europe experiences revolutions in 1820-1823

Revolutions: 1820-1848
The revolution spreads to Portugal and Italy (led by the Carbonari) where it is suppressed by the Austrians.
The Decembrist revolt, 1825
In Russia, the Decembrists Revolt against the conservative Czar Nicholas I, fails in 1825.
Nicholas I establishes a secret police, called the Third Section.
These issues would re-erupt in 1905 and 1917.
The Greeks are depicted being defeated
by the Ottomans at the Battle of Dragasani.
Revolutions against the Ottoman Empire were more successful because they were supported by the Western countries.

Revolutions and the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Army attacking
In 1821-23, a second round of revolts began at the grassroots. Greek peasants killed Turks, and Turks retaliated by hanging the Greek patriarch of Constantinople, pillaging Greek Orthodox Churches, massacring thousands of men, and selling Greek women into slavery.
The enraged Western public opinion, Greece was portrayed as the cradle of Western civilization, fighting barbarian occupiers.
The battle of Navarino
In 1827, a combined British, French, and Russian fleet defeated the Turkish navy at Navarino.
In 1828, Russia advanced on Istanbul.
In 1829, all parties signed the Treaty of Adrianople. Greece received its independence the following year, and Russia was appointed to “protect” the semi-independent provinces of Wallachia and Moldovia, that is, western and eastern Romania.
This arrangement would eventually lead to the Crimean War (1853-1856).
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834)
The ones that succeeded were the ones that did not involve the interference of the great powers.
The French deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philipe.
Then the revolution spread to Belgium, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Italy.
But the revolution was only successful in Belgium, which the great powers allowed it.
Other revolutions were crushed by the Russian and the Austrians.
Revolutions that succeeded - 1830
Louis Phillipe – the last king of France
The revolutions of 1848 were the worst of all. The entire continent west of the Elbe exploded in revolution.
They were helped by bad harvests and declining economies.
Rebellion begins in France, Feb 22, 1848.
Louis Phillipe is deposed in favor of a republic under Louis Napoleon
Revolutions erupt everywhere (except Britain and Russia)
1848 painting entitled “Germania”
By Phillipe Veit

Liberals in German states revolt in March 1848 to create a single, liberal state.

Each group wanted something different.

They could not decide whether Prussia or Austria should be in charge.

Delegates met at “the professors parliament” and finally write the “Frankfurt Constitution” and decide to offer a constitutional crown to Frederick William IV of Prussia.

Frederick refuses to accept a constitutional monarchy.
Guiseppe Mazzini
The Risorgimento (“resurgence”) was equally a movement to unite the country under a liberal constitution and to drive the Austrians out of Venetia.
Revolts begin in Sicily in Jan. 1848, where nationalists and liberals wanted the Bourbon monarch to push for both national unification and a liberal constitution.

King Charles
The Battle of Novara
A Roman Republic was briefly established under the nationalist leader Guiseppe Mazzini, supported by Garibaldi
But then the French intervened and crushed the republic.

Only King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia embraced the Risorgimento.
He enacted a liberal constitution.
He attempted to aid Venetian rebels but was defeated at the Battle of Novaro by the Austrian army in 1849.
Italy (cont.)
The Hungarian Surrender at Vilagos
Anti-Austrian revolts happen in Venetia and Hungary, while student revolts break out in Vienna.
Austria’s government fled to Innsbruck; promising an elected parliament, and end of censorship, and Hungarian home rule.
The March Laws granted Hungary some self-government.
In Hungary, Lajos Kossuth proclaimed independence.
He abolished serfdom (which made the aristocracy mad) and he did nothing for the Czechs, Serbs, Coats, and Rumanians.
The Austrian monarch then got a new emperor, Franz Josef who mobilized the army under Count Radetsky, gathered those who were unhappy with Kossuth, and crushed the rebellions in Italy and Hungary.
1849, an authoritarian constitution was written and the period known as “Germanizaton” began.
All across Europe, the old monarchies had reasserted themselves.
Liberalism, nationalism, and socialism were viable movements in Central and Southern Europe
The Ancien Regime still had a lot of residual power against a disunited resistance.
Radicals were either proscribed or fled to America, where movements were started.
Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary had to go through the process of becoming a nation before they could have a liberal constitution.
Given that unification was only going to happen from the top down, it was not likely that they would become liberal democracies.
German or Italian unification depended on what happened to the Austro-Hungarian empire.

Without question, nationalism will now be a fundamental factor in how the modern world is shaped.
What does it all mean?
The Italian Carbonari in Northern Italy revolt against the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Nationalism, 1848-1871
They barely weathered the revolutions of 1848.

But the problems that had led to 1848 did not go away.

Austria’s concerns with the Balkans would ultimately divert its attention away from Germany and Italy and open the way for their unification.
Count Camillo di Cavour
King Victor Emmanuel II
After 1848, it was clear that Piedmont Sardinia, under the Savoy dynasty, was the key to Italian unification.

In 1852, King Victor Emmanuel II names the Count Cavour as his first minister.

He strengthened Piedmont Sardinia against the Austrians.
Garibaldi meets King
Emmanuel, with Cavour
Standing by, 1875
In 1859, Austria demanded that Piedmont-Sardinia stop its military build-up.
When the Italians refused, Austria invaded Piedmont-Sardinia.

At this point, nationalist all over Italy rose in revolt against their conservative rulers.
Guiseppe Garibaldi and his Carbonari
Cavour ordered the Piedmontese army to march further south.
When the two armies met, Garibaldi knelt and submitted to Victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy.
As with Italy, the weakness of Austria-Hungary, the pretensions of Napoleon III, and the machinations of a great minister made unification possible.

German nationalists were torn in attempting to decide whether Prussia or Austria should lead a unified Germany.

Arguably the most significant European statesman of the 19th century, Bismarck believed that politics should be governed by practical considerations and realistic aims – called Realpolitik.
The Battle of Dybbol where the Danes were defeated by the Prussians
and Austrians.

The North German Confederation is formed in 1867, excluding Austria and the south German states.
And Bismark is happy. He has his unified Germany...
The German Confederation
Napoleon III
After 1866, France and Napoleon III grew alarmed at the growing might of Prussia.

Napoleon demanded that Bismark hand over some German territory or at least Belgium.

Bismark responds by progressively isolating France on the continent.
France Starts to Worry…
The Ems Dispatch: With Bismarck’s
Bismark got ready to fight the French.
The Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) was Bismark’s masterpiece.
Bismark maneuvered France into isolation.
Then he manufactured a pretext for war by proposing that a Prussian become the new king of Spain.
This came in the form of the Ems Dispatch.
Leading up to The Franco-Prussian War
Bismarck's Edited Version:
After the reports of the renunciation by the hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern had been officially transmitted by the Royal Government of Spain to the Imperial Government to the Imperial Government of France, the French Ambassador presented to His Majesty the King at Ems the demand to authorize him to telegraph to Paris that His Majesty the King would obligate himself for all future time never again to give his approval to the candidacy of the Hohenzollerns should it be renewed. His Majesty the King thereupon refused to receive the French envoy again and informed him through an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to the Ambassador.
The Original Text:
Count Benedetti intercepted me on the Promenade in order to demand of me most insistently that I should authorize him to telegraph immediately to Paris that I shall obligate myself for all future time never again to give my approval to the candidacy of the Hohenzollerns should it be renewed. I refused to agree to this, the last time somewhat severely, informing him that one dare not and cannot assume such obligations forever. [Then I] decided not to receive the French envoy again but to inform him through an adjutant that I had now received from Leopold confirmation of the news which Benedetti had already received from Paris, and that I had nothing further to say to the Ambassador. I leave it to your judgment whether or not to communicate at once the new demand by Benedetti and its rejection to our ambassadors and to the press. [Signed] A[beken] 13.7.70
The Ems Dispatch
Napoleon III having a conversation with Bismarck after his defeat and capture at Sedan, 1870.
Off to war…
As usual, the Prussians routed the French.

Prussian Victory
Proclamation of the
German Empire, 1871
Bismarck argued that all Germans needed the protection of living in a single German Empire.
18 January, 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, all the German states, minus Austria, recognized the King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, as kaiser of Germany.
This changed the balance of power in Europe.
The Birth of the German Empire
The unification of Germany initiated a new epoch in Europe.
Bismarck and Cavour had not considered the moral and ethical ramifications of their actions. Realpolitik had taken precedence, with diplomacy being wielded through iron and blood.
The Meanings of German Unification
Proclamation of the
German Empire, 1871
Bismarck argued that all Germans needed the protection of living in a single German Empire.
18 January, 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, all the German states, minus Austria, recognized the King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, as kaiser of Germany.
This changed the balance of power in Europe.
The Birth of the German Empire
Europe in 1871
A summary of how it happened: http://www.the-map-as-history.com/kiosque/tome_01/lit_carte.php?numtome=1&num=tome_01/01_07_gb_fs2d3f1sd46.php

Italian Independence cont.
The spa at Bad Ems
Europe in 1870
King Wilhelm
Napoleon III
Count Benedetti
A Christmas menu, 99th day of the siege. Unusual dishes include stuffed donkey's head, elephant consommé, roast camel, kangaroo stew, antelope terrine, bear ribs, cat with rats, and wolf haunch in deer sauce
"The War: Defence of Paris—Students Going to Man the Fortifications". From the Illustrated London News of 1 October 1870. Perhaps one of the more iconic scenes from the Franco-Prussian War.

The Siege of Paris by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier. Oil on canvas.
Jan 28, 1871, the French signed an armistice. The Peace of Frankfurt was harsh - breeding French resentment.

The citizens of France declared a commune in 1871, which existed as a communist entity for two months. After bloody street fighting, the government regained order.
A barricade constructed by the Commune in April 1871 on the Rue de Rivoli near the Hotel de Ville. The figures are blurry due to the camera's lengthy exposure time, a common defect in early photographs.
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