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Transcript of Qualitative Methodology
Methods Interviews Non-directive Informal Semi-Structured Sturctured, Open-ended Structured Observations Case Studies Conversational Conversational;
made to gather
data for a study identify themes;
understand meaning in a specific context; Preset Questions,
but free response Predetermined scale;
Lacks Richness One-on-one Focus Groups Narrative Researcher
to participant Researcher in a group setting Gives participants a scenario/ story to discover meaning Likert Scale Natural Flexible Detailed Poor Reliability Clarity Richness & Depth Naturalistic Researcher Bias Polarization Effect Less Developed Rich/Meaningful Personal Ethics Confidentiality Consent Right to Withdraw Transcription and Encoding Verbatim Transcription Postmodern Transcription Exact Words are transcribed Researchers record words and subtle, nonverbal cues. Type Covert Observation is unknown to the person being observed. Overt Person knows they're being observed. Deception Sampling Ethics Structured Semi-structured Experimental Unstructured Self-observation Ethnography Diaries Observational study of
cultural practices Deception Confidentiality Consent Analysis Thick Description Categorical Constant Comparative Negative Theoretical Saturation Extremely detailed accounts of setting and context, and of what happened Create categories for analysis. Categories start at low level of abstraction, advance to higher levels of abstraction. Researcher moves back and forth between similarities and differences among categories; brings out subcategories. Researchers look cases that don't fit existing categories; new categories and interpretations emerge. Researchers code data into categories, using the constant comparative method until no new themes emerge. Observer Participant Non-participant Ethics Anonymity Confidentiality Consent Types Intrinsic Instrumental Unusual, interesting; not easily generalizable; Examine how individual or group experiences fit into a larger theory. Characteristics Ideographic Concentrate on unique traits of individuals or groups Contextual High Triangulation High Ecological Validity Poor Population Validity Time Consuming Representative Sampling A target population is identified; selects a sub-sample that represents the target population; generalizable Simple random sampling Everyone in target population has an equal chance of being selected; Target population is divided into subcategories; each subcategory represents a proportion of the target population. Stratified Random Sampling Non-Representative Sampling Not necessarily representative of a target population; generalizable only to those studied Opportunity Sampling Theoretical Sampling Purposive/Symbolic Sampling Participants aren't rigorously selected. Participants are rigorously selected; selected with a purpose; meant to symbolize a larger group. A form of purposive sampling; participants selected based on developing theory(s).