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in Poetry FORM of Poetry Literary Devices
in Poetry Types of Poetry Sound Devices
in Poetry Literary work in which special
intensity is given to the expression
of feelings and ideas by the use
of a distinctive style and rhythm The form of a poem is the appearance
of the words on the page Poetry refers to writing that aims to express
ideas or feelings, to tell a story, and to evoke
an emotional experience through using lines
and stanzas with words and expressions having
several layers of meaning, symbols, and images "Poetry is the rhythmical creation of
beauty in words."
-Edgar Allan Poe "Poetry is when an emotion has
found its thought and the thought
has found words."
-Robert Frost Edgar Allan
Shakespeare Speaker/Persona the "narrator" of the poem ADDRESSEE The object or individual spoken to by the speaker Do not ASSUME that the poet of the poem is the speaker. This may be true at times, but is not always the case. STANZA: a group of lines in a poem COUPLET: two-line stanza
TRIPLET/TERSET: three-line poem
QUATRAIN: four-line poem
OCTET: eight-line poem SIMILE "There is no frigate like a book,/To take us lands away..." (Emily Dickinson) "An emerald is as green as grass,/ A ruby red as blood..." (Christina Rosetti) METAPHOR Using a direct comparison of two unlike things or ideas without using the words "like" or "as" "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day"
-William Shakespeare "The fog comes on little cat feet..."
-Carl Sandburg Comparison of two things using the words "like" or "as" PERSONIFICATION To provide human nature or human characteristics to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions "The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky." "The first rays of morning tiptoed across the living room floor." "The flowers waltzed in the gentle breeze." "The news took me by surprise." APOSTROPHE A direct address to someone absent/deceased or some inanimate object as if it were alive and present and was able to reply "Busy old fool, unruly sun,
Why dost thou thus
Through windows, and through curtains call on us?
-John Donne "Then come, sweet death, and rid me of this grief!"
-Christopher Marlowe HYPERBOLE The use of incredible exaggeration, or overstatement, for effect "Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world."
-Ralph Waldo Emerson "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?"
-William Shakespeare OXYMORON Two contradictory terms or objects provided in the same sentence "Good grief" "Jumbo shrimp" "Living dead" "Deafening silence" "O brawling love, O loving hate"
-William Shakespeare SYMBOLISM When a person, place, thing, or event represent itself and also stands for or represents something else "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost - Two roads that lie before the speaker represent to separate life choices. ALLUSION A reference to someone or something famous from history, literature, the bible, mythology, etc. It seemed to have rained for 40 days and 40 nights. His love for his wife was his Achille's heel. She transformed her back yard to look like the garden of Eden. RHYME Words that contain similar
sounds. Creak, squeak, bump in the night
I wake up in such a fright
I jump up to turn on the light.
-LuAnn Slough ALLITERATION The repetition of the same initial consonant sounds (generally at the beginning of words) "I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet..."
-Robert Frost "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers..." ASSONANCE Repetition of the vowel sounds in stressed syllables containing dissimilar consonant sounds "Hear the mellow wedding bells - Golden bells!"
-Edgar Allan Poe "I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless."
-Thin Lizzy ONOMATOPOEIA A word that sounds like the word it represents "Baa baa black sheep, have you any wool?" "Sea nymphs hourly ringing his knell:
Hark! Now I hear them - Ding, dong, bell!"
-William Shakespeare IMAGERY The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas; generally aimed at the five human senses "The winter evening settles down / With the smell of steaks in passageways."
-T.S. Eliot "And now the gusty shower wraps / The grimy scraps / Of withered leaves about your feet / And newspapers from vacant lots."
-T.S. Eliot "...A host, of golden daffodils; / Beside the lake, beneath the tress / Fluttering and dancing in the breeze."
-William Wordsworth RHYME SCHEME The pattern of rhymes used within a poem; usually marked by letters to symbolize corresponding rhyme sounds "Bid me to weep, and I will weep,
While I have eyes to see;
And having none, yet I will keep
A heart to weep for thee."
-Robert Herrick "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Though art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
Yet summer's lease hath all too short a date."
-William Shakespeare METER A rhythmic pattern of a poem RHYTHM The arrangement of words into a sequence of regular, recurring stressed and unstressed syllables REFRAIN A phrase, line, or group of lines repeated throughout a poem, usually after each stanza "Quoth the Raven, 'Nevermore'"
-Edgar Allan Poe NARRATIVE POETRY Form of poetry that tells a story BALLAD Poems that tell a story similar to a legend or folk tale
Often contain a refrain and address the topics of love or other sentimental topics "The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner" (Coleridge) "Ballad of the Cool Fountain"
(anonymous Spanish poet) LIMERICKS Short, humorous poems
Consist of five lines
Often bawdy (raunchy/indecent) "There was an old man in a boat,
Who said, 'I'm afloat, I'm afloat!'
When they said, 'No you ain't!'
He was ready to faint,
That unhappy old man in a boat."
-Eward Lear EPIC POETRY Long narrative (tells a story)
Often book length
Retells the heroic journey of one person or a group of people Iliad & Odyssey
-Virgil LYRIC POETRY Poetry, usually with a clear rhyme scheme, that express personal or emotional feelings