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History of Planetary Motion Timeline
Transcript of History of Planetary Motion Timeline
- cosmos structured according to significant numerical relationships
- "The heavenly bodies" adhered to mathematical ratios and produce “the harmony of the spheres.”
- the planets, stars, and the universe were spherical because the sphere was the most perfect solid figure
- paths of the planets were circular
- morning star and evening star both Venus.
- Planets & Stars on concentric crystalline spheres
- fire was at the center of the cosmos - "Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 560-ca. 480 BC)." Wolfram Research. N.p., n.d. Web. Aristotle 384 BC – 322 BC Eratosthenes of Cyrene 276 BC – 195 BC Claudius Ptolemy 100 AD —170 AD Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 AD - 1543 AD Tycho Brahe 1546 AD – 1601 AD Galileo Galilei 1564 AD – 1642 AD Johannes Kepler 1571 AD – 1630 AD Isaac Newton 1642 AD - 1726 AD Albert Einstein 1879 AD – 1955 AD Edwin Hubble 1889 AD – 1953 AD
- 368 BC: Aristotle founds Lyceum in Athens; research students called peripatetics
- Earth is stationary; all planets, the sun and fixed domes of the stars rotated around earth
- the rate at which object fall is directly related to their mass
- heavens are composed of 55 concentric, crystalline spheres
- astronomical objects are attached to crystalline spheres and rotate at different velocities with the Earth at the center.
- motions on earth are linear, motions in the heaven are curved
- view dominated for 1000 years - 150 AD he wrote the Almagest: explained his studies regarding planetary motion
- Earth at the center of the universe
- planets were attached to circles attached to the concentric spheres
- Circles: Epicycles
- concentric spheres : Deferents
- The centers of the epicycles move in uniform circular motion as they go around the deferent at uniform angular velocity, the epicycles move in their own uniform circular motion. Epicycle Diferent - "Planetary Motion: The History of an Idea That Launched the Scientific Revolution : Feature Articles." Planetary Motion: The History of an Idea That Launched the Scientific Revolution : Feature Articles. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. - heliocentric model 1543
-earth, like all other planets, circled the Sun
- distance of the planets from the sun had a direct relationship to the size of their orbit
- earth's motion must produce a parallax - "Nicolaus Copernicus." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. - Brahe designed and built instruments, calibrated them and checked their accuracy systematically, thus revolutionizing astronomical instrumentation. Brahe observed planets and satellites throughout their orbits, introducing a new way to observe heavenly bodies. He observed the new star of 1572 and comet of 1577 and established the fact that satellites above the heavens are not stationary.
- observed planets throughout orbit
- first astronomer to make corrections for atmospheric refraction
- stars weren't stationary
- measured with unprecedented accuracy - "The Galileo Project | Science | Tycho Brahe." The Galileo Project | Science | Tycho Brahe. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. - built telescope (1609) to observe:
- Moons of Jupiter (If Aristotle were right about all things orbiting Earth, then these moons could not exist)
- the phases of Venus (proved that the planet orbits the Sun)
- discovered sun spots, proving that the sun rotates
- church supported idea of "perfect" and "unchanging heavens" -
angered by Galileo's book in which he stated
that the Earth was moving around the Sun (1632)
- 1632 : Basic Relativity in physics, served as the basis for
Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. - Theory of special relativity (1905) - treats time, space, and mass as fluid things that are defined by frame of reference. The force of gravitational attraction could be viewed as a distortion of space and time around an object, meaning that Space and Time were not at all constant.
- gravity is the curvature of space around the mass of an object (slightly adjusting Newton's theory of space and time being constant). - "University of California, San Diego Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences." History of Astronomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. Kepler's laws: early 1600's
- Kepler's First Law: orbits are elliptical - shattered the age old Greek (Aristotle) conception that motion in the heavens (space) was perfectly circular
- Kepler's Second Law: A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
- Kepler's Third Law: The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. - 200 BC, calculated the circumference of the Earth
- measured the distances from the Earth to the moon and Earth to the sun (less accurate than his Earth measurement)
- determined the obliquity of the Ecliptic
- measured the tilt of the earth's axis (23° 51' 15") - - created a star map containing 675 stars. -"Eratosthenes of Cyrene." About.com Space / Astronomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. Newton's three laws of motion and a law of universal gravitation united set of principles which applied to the heavens and the earth (1687).
1. A body remains at rest, or moves in a straight line (at a constant velocity), unless acted upon by a net outside force.
Given that planets orbit in an elipse, this law states that there must be some “force” acting upon the planet. If there were no force, the planet would keep moving in a straight line.
2. The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force acting upon it.
When a force acts upon the object, the motion will change due to acceleration. An accelerating object can either change how fast it is moving and/or change the direction it is moving.
3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
For example, when the sun attracts a planet with the force of gravity, the planet pulls on the sun with a force of equal magnitude. - Hubble Expansion Law (1929): all galaxies appeared to be moving away from us, observed as a redshift ("when light seen coming from an object that is moving away is proportionally increased in wavelength")
v = galaxy's radial outward velocity
d = galaxy's distance from earth
H = Hubble's constant.
- In 1923 and 1924, Hubble used the largest telescope in the world to examine Andromeda Nebula
- By comparing how bright the stars appeared with how much light they actually gave off, he estimated the distance to the nebula
- Telescope helped prove space was much larger than previously thought (more galaxies) calculated the distances to many other galaxies
- estimated the universe to be 13-14 billion years old In the Tychonic model (late 16th century), the sun orbits the earth while other planets orbit the sun Ancient Chinese Planetary Motions - 500 BC first record of planetary grouping
- adept at predicting lunar eclipses
- calculated the year to be 365.25 days
- observations of a supernova (1504)
- used the orientation of the Big Dipper in order to mark the passage of time
- inventors of the first clock, a water clock which divided a day into 100 equal parts.
- During the Ming Dynasty (1436-1449) an observatory was built in Beijing on the old city walls - filled with impressive bronze instruments. - "Chinese Astronomy by S.Y. Ho." Chinese Astronomy by S.Y. Ho. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. - initiator of the scientific revolution!