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Revision Wars of the Roses

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andrew mountford

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Revision Wars of the Roses

A3 Revision Template Wars of the Roses Topics 1
1) Causes of the Wars of the Roses
Framework of Notes should be supplemented by additional revision at home using 'Wars of the Roses revision notes' on VLE Past Paper Questions Causes
1) How far was the outbreak of civil war in 1455 a direct result of Henry VI’s inadequacies as a King?
2) How far were local rivalries among the nobility responsible for the outbreak of civil conflict in England in 1455?
3) How far does the weakness of royal power explain the outbreak of conflict in England in 1455? Key Historical Debate
Was the Wars of the Roses caused by the development of an 'Overmighty nobility' or just a weak 'undermighty King' 1) Long Term Causes 2) Noble Rivalries 3) Personality of Henry VI + role of Margaret of Anjou 4) Role of Richard, Duke of York 5) War in France and Royal Debt Rupture between Houses of York and Lancaster 1399 usurpation of Richard II (York) by Henry Bolingbroke (Lancaster) who became Henry IV (sets precedent of overthrowing divine ruler) Example of Henry V who ruled effectively and captures large amounts of Land in France (Agincourt 1413) Henry VI pious 'fool of God' (Shakespeare)
Perceived as physically and mentally weak unlike warrior-King father
easily led + Reckless generosity and absolute failure to use patronage effectively - i.e. 1441 granted Stewardship of Duchy of Cornwall to Earl of Devon (Courtenay) despite the fact that it was held by William Bonville who despised Courtenay He was not interested in war. His policy in this respect and his means of achieving it put him opposition to his uncle, Duke of Gloucester + many other powerful Nobles. Emergence of Margaret of Anjou as the aggressive defender of her young son Edward pushed Richard of York over the brink Bouts of madness in 1453 + 1455 meant he largely withdrew from Kingship Wars justified to remove a weak-ineffective King? Evidence of growing division and disorder in the early 1450s - the nobility through bastard feudalism had been allowed to gain a strong military presence (retaining) By early 1450s all the drawbacks of Govt without a strong king were evident. There was no impartial figure powerful enough to constrain feuding magnates. Feud between Bonville and Courtenay in South West Fierce dispute between Neville's (supported by York) and Percy's in the North in 1454 skirmishes break out Richard could claim himself heir to the throne from both sides of his family (heir until 1543). Arrogant, stubborn and demanding. Instead of exercising patience and cultivating friendships he preferred confrontation and challenge. Despite being the King’s closest living male relative, Richard, Duke of York was excluded from power.
1.The opposition of the King’s chief advisers, William De La Pole, Duke of Suffolk and Duke of Somerset
2.The Queen did not like or trust York
3.York removed from being military commander in France (1447 replaced by Somerset) – bitter feud with Somerset (also magnate with some claim to throne)
4.Owed £38,000 by the Crown
5.1453+1454 leads protectorate with Neville's as King goes mad but in 1454 on King's recovery is completely removed from power (MOA suspicious) as Somerset is released (reinstated Captain of Calais)
1454 York and Warwick flee to the North to prepare their armies Cade's rebellion (Kent, Surrey) 1450 over taxation and opposition to the Kings 'Evil Councillors' King continually granted away royal land with reckless generosity.
Had to rely on loans from magnates to pay his way
Parliament try to pass 2 Acts of Resumption to regain royal land but with limited success 1453- Capture of Bordeaux by France (loss of all territories accept Calais
King did not lead troops in battle in France Bitter rivalry between Richard, DOY and Duke of Suffolk A3 Revision Template Wars of the Roses Topic 2
1) 1455-1461 Period of Intense Conflict
Framework of Notes should be supplemented by additional revision at home using 'Wars of the Roses revision notes' on VLE Past Paper Questions
1) Why did the Yorkist Challenge 1455-1461 prove successful?
2) To what extent were Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou responsible for Lancastrian failures in the years 1455–61?
3) How far were the ambitions of Richard Duke of York responsible for the instability in England in the years 1455–60? Historical Debate
Was Richard DOY an over-mighty subject? Was he fighting for the Crown or control over the Crown?
How did the Yorkists win despite their relatively weak position throughout the period 1) Yorkist strategy and leadership 2) Wealth and Resources of Yorkists 3) Yorkists strategic strengths 4) Treachery 5) Lancastrian army’s weak leadership, poor strategy and ill-discipline 6) Insensitivity of the Lancastrians towards the Merchants + Nobility Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick proved adept military leader, organiser and propagandist for Yorkists. Warwick wealthist and most powerful peer of his age and good in battle.
Warwick raises money through acts of piracy against foreign merchants
Warwick's effective propaganda against MOA
Eldest son of RDOY - Edward, Earl of March proved to be a good military leader and turned round the fortunes of Yorkists after RDOY death
Edward wins important victory at Mortimer's Cross (1460) over Jasper Tudor
Edward wins famous battle of Towton and moves quickly against MOA and Lancastrians
Lord Falconberg (vet. of 100 years war) able to maintain control of Calais after Lancastrian offensive 1460
Falconberg uses bad weather to utilise effectively at Towton Warwick's piracy helps raise money
Though outnumbered three key Yorkist magnates are some of richest in land (Warwick, Earl of Salisbury (W's father), Richard Duke of York)
York vast wealth in Welsh marches Lord Grey of Ruthin defected to the Yorkists after Battle of Northampton turned tide and led to deaths of Key Lancastrians Control of Calais (Warwick Captain of Calais 1456) and large navy
Bases in Ireland (Dublin) allowed them to flee safely and co-ordinate invasion
After Battle of Northampton in control of London Victorious Lancastrian army after Wakefield 1460 went south in orgy of looting and murder
After Battle of St. Albans (1461) MOA has to withdraw from London because of concerns of Londoners and opposition to her Northern troops Favoured foreign merchants (trade recession)
Londoner's concerned about behaviour of MOA's troops
Calais Lords sympathetic to York because of HVI weak policies in France
Parl of Devil 1459 barred Yorkists from succeeding to their estates which foreced them into opposition and angered other nobles who saw laws as sacrosanct Key Events
1455 - First Battle St. Albans (Somerset killed and RDOY captures HVI)
1455 - Parl meets blames Somerset and pardons Yorkists army (Warwick made Captain of Calais) York becomes Protector
1455 - two months MOA removes York and Warwick from King's Council
1457 - small French invasion fended off with help of York and Warwick
1458 - Loveday
1458 - MOA tried to have Warwick killed in brawl outside court - Warwick and York respond by raising army
1459 - Battle of Blore Heath + Ludford (L Victory) (York flees to Ireland)
1459 - Parl. of Devils
1460 - Warwick and Salisbury land defeat Yorkists at Battle of Northampton (H6 captured)
1460 - Battle of Wakefied (RDOY killed)
1461 - Battle of Mortimer's Cross and Towton (EIV victory) A3 Revision Template Wars of the Roses Topic 3
1) 1461-1483 Edward IV and Readeption Government
Framework of Notes should be supplemented by additional revision at home using 'Wars of the Roses revision notes' on VLE Past Paper Questions
1) To what extent do divisions amongst Edward IV’s opponents explain their failure to overthrow him 1469-71?
2) To what extent was effective royal government re-established in England in the years 1471–83?
3) How far did foreign involvement influence the course and final outcome of the Wars of the Roses in the years 1469–85? Historical Debate
To What extent was Edward an effective and innovative King? (New Monarchy?)
To what extent did Edward restore the authority of the monarchy 1) Character and Policies of EIV 2) Rule 1461-1469 3) 1469-1471 Rebellion and readeption government 4) Rule of Edward IV 1471-1483 He was surprisingly lenient (Carrot and Stick) in dealing with pro-Lancastrian families restoring land, but this did not pay off (e.g. Ralph Percy has his castle restored but joins the rebellion against Edward at Hedgeley Moor. He dies in battle) Margaret continues to reopen hostilities, getting aid from Louis XI- but this makes her unpopular in England particularly as she had promised Calais in return for support. Edward deals with this by securing a truce in 1463 with Louis XI, he is to stop funding the Lancastrian cause and Warwick looks for a suitable French bride for Edward to secure the truce.Warwick was rewarded by Edward with titles like captain of Calais, admiral of England and constable of Dover Castle
However, Warwick was not given the complete monopoly of power during Edward’s regin as other pro-Yorkists were highly rewarded for their support (e.g. William Herbert was made lieutenant of South Wales)
1464- Edward secretly marries Elizabeth Woodville- Warwick had almost secured a politically influential marriage with a French princess, securing an alliance
Woodville a 'commoner' (someone who had already been married and already had a child)
Woodville influence promoted and female Woodvilles get married to magnates (Warwick loses his influence) + further divide in foreign policy as EIV favours Burgundy while Warwick favours France
Warwick tries to arrange marriage of his daugther Isabel to Clarence but this is blocked by EIV Demonstrated abilities in War and popular in Kingdom (particularly South) - areas in North Lancastrian sympathies
Marries Woodville for love
Not willing to be controlled by others •1469-Warwick and Clarence join forces with the aim of removing the Woodville’s from court, Warwick hoping to control the king, Clarence hoping to remove him completely and take his place.
•1469- Warwick’s daughter Isabel marries Clarence in Calais.
•After the wedding the Warwick issues a manifesto declaring his intent to ‘relieve England from the tyranny of poor government’.
•Edward does not follow these demands and Warwick invades
•Battle at Edgecote- victory for Warwick, Edward is captured
•Uprisings and rebellions spread across England which forced Warwick to release Edward
•Edward forgives Warwick and Clarence- but they rebel again at Lose-Cote Field, Edward’s army is victorious and Warwick and Clarence flee to France. This is where Margaret and Warwick join forces.
•Warwick gains support of the French in return for England supporting France in their invasion of Burgundy when Henry VI was restored.
•The alliance between Warwick and Margaret sealed with the marriage of Warwick’s daughter Anne to Prince Edward (Henry’s son)
•With Henry incapable of ruling a kingdom Margaret promises that Warwick would be named Regent and Governor of England and Clarence was promised the throne if Edward were to die without a son.
•1470 Warwick and Clarence return
•Edward’s supporters start to desert him, so instead of going to battle he flees to Burgundy
•October 1470 Henry VI is released form the Tower and restored to the throne.
•Henry VI being reinstated brought with it war with Burgundy
•England had entered the war without the consent of parliament, Warwick could no longer rely on public support
•Edward invades in 1471 and gains support as he goes, even joining forces with Clarence who Edward forgives and restores all of his estates.
•Edward rides into London greeted by cheering crowds. Henry is returned to the Tower. WHY EDWARD’S FIRST REIGN WAS UNSUCCESSFUL ?
•His fall out with Warwick- allowing nobles to become over-mighty
•His marriage to Elizabeth alienates other nobility
•His determination to ally with Burgundy
•Henry VI and Prince Edward are still alive with Margaret as a driving force to reclaim the throne
•He wasn’t in control of law and order as there were a number of rebellions all over England between 1461-1470 - J.R. Green famously described EIV's second reign as a 'new monarchy' where he set out to restore central power and reduce noble power but most modern historians disagree with this and see his second reign as more of the same
- He still allowed powerful magnate families to rule parts of the country and there was considerable lawlessness
•Edward’s luxurious court, lavish gifts to his favourites and conducting foreign campaigns placed a substantial burden on royal finances.
•Edward was reluctant to upset his kingdom, therefore did not rely on heavy taxation to fund his lifestyle, instead he had to rely on the ‘voluntary’ payment of benevolences.
•The Treaty of Picquigny was a big success in Edward’s finances as he could secure a pension which provided him with the ability to ‘live of his own’.
•By 1478 Edward was solvent
•He had achieved this also by means of organising the royal finances, by placing himself at the centre of it and scrutinising spending, this allowed him to keep a close check on how finances were being dealt with.•Biggest problem rift between Gloucester and Clarence and problem of Woodville influence
• Gloucester rewarded with territories in North (incites Clarence's jealousy)
•1472 takes title of Great Chamberlain of England from Gloucester and gives to Clarence
•1473 EIV issues act of Resumption to take land from Clarence and Gloucester
•1478 Clarence executed FOREIGN POLICY
•Edward laid a claim for the French throne, and it is believed that this was his ultimate objective when he invaded France in 1475
•Louis XI wanted to pursue with his own aims of controlling the whole of France and occupying other areas like Burgundy and Brittany.
•This was the route of Edward’s foreign policy.
•He had 2 major campaigns abroad- France and Scotland
•Edward invades France in 1475 mainly paid fro by benevolence (obligatory gift, money demanded by the king to keep in his favour)
•The campaign was over within weeks and settled by the Treaty of Picquigny (£15,000 up front and an annual pension of £10,000)
•This did not last however as Edward supported Burgundy in their invasion of France in 1477, with the promise that the Duke of Burgundy would pay the pension, but the plans are interrupted in 1480 when Scotland invade.
•Scotland invades in 1480.
•England pushes Scotland back and invade Edinburgh, capturing James III at the same time.
•But bad planning and poor leadership results in only one Scottish territory being retained by the English.
•Whilst Edward’s army is busy in Scotland Louis XI successfully invades Burgundy resulting in the Treaty of Arras.
•The pension payments to Edward stop and he loses valuable alliances by 1483.
•He was a young king and people saw him as a new Henry V. A3 Revision Template Wars of the Roses Topic 4
4) 1483-1485 Richard III
Framework of Notes should be supplemented by additional revision at home using 'Wars of the Roses revision notes' on VLE Past Paper Questions
1) How accurate is it to say that Henry Tudor was able to seize the crown primarily because of Richard III’s inability to secure the support of the great nobles of England?
2) To what extent was Richard III responsible for his insecurity as king?
3) 12 Why was the reign of Richard III so short lived? Historical Debate
Why did Richard take the throne - ambition or self-defence? Richard III usurping the throne 1483 •Had been loyal to his brother but witnessed the power struggles of the Wars of the Roses - experience in ruling in the North of the Country
•Richard feared his position in court due to Woodville's influence and control.
•Buckingham and Lord Hastings supported Richard in his ambition to remove the dominating Woodville's from court
•3 weeks after Edward’s death Richard took Prince Edward into his custody and made himself protector of the throne for Edward’s minority.
•Meanwhile, Buckingham challenges the legitimacy of Edward claiming that Edward IV was already contracted to marry someone else when he married Elizabeth Woodville. Sermons are preached in St Pauls to spread this propaganda. It is clearly effective as within days parliament submit a petition to the royal council requesting that Richard takes the throne.
•Some historians consider Edward V’s removal from the throne as an inevitability as Richard’s supporters would have wanted rewards and titles that only a king could bestow and they all would have feared a Woodville revenge when Edward came of age and reinstated his family.
•26th June 1483 Edward was dethroned, sent to the Tower of London (with his brother) and Richard became king.
•By the autumn of 1483 the Princes had disappeared from public view.
Reasons why Richard could have done it:
1.He was believed to be responsible, if not a participant in murder before (e.g. Henry VI, Henry’s son Prince Edward, Clarence and his own wife Anne Neville)
2.He was making the most of the opportunity he had. Fear of his own undoing and removal of influence at court drove him to it.
3.His political ambition was so strong he could not resist the opportunity
Reasons why Richard couldn’t have done it:
1.There is no proof that he did it!
2.Buckingham could have done it for Richard, to increase his favour in court
3.He was very loyal to Edward, why kill his own nephews
•Cultivated an image of a pious, God-fearing and just monarch
•In 1483 the Act Titulus Regius was passed, which proclaimed the illegitimacy of his nephews and legally stated the right of Richard to be king
• Usurpation unpopular with some nobles
•He divided the nobility further with his ruthless disposal of his enemies, e.g. Lord Hastings who was executed.•Buckingham rebellion 1483 - had been with Richard throughout his usurpation.
•Buckingham was very ambitions, and rightfully deserves the title ‘over-mighty’. When Richard became king he rewarded Buckingham for his assistance and made him the most powerful noble in the kingdom.
•Most common belief is that Buckingham was swept along with the rising tide of opposition and his main motive was self preservation.
•Buckingham was executed for his betrayal in November 1483 and invasion of Henry Tudor fails
HIS GOVERNANCE
•Richard alienated the south by relying upon and over rewarding the north. However, some nobles were unwilling to commit to a usurper.
•Richard was a capable and energetic king who was determined to stamp his authority on the kingdom by promising to outlaw corruption, restore peace and reform the legal system.
•Richard founded the Council of Requests and Supplications, which was intended to help poor people in search of justice.
•Richard eventually won the support of the nobility by offering financial rewards, land and titles (however this did put a strain on the royal finances)
•The execution of Buckingham also showed the nobility that Richard was not afraid to deal with those who betrayed him.
•A real measure of his success with the nobility was that no English peers openly declared their support for Henry Tudor until after the battle of Bosworth.
•The main piece of evidence that suggests what a great king Richard could have been was his only parliament meeting (January 1484).
•There were 3 aims of this meeting: 1. To solidify Richard’s claim to the throne. 2. To pass 114 acts of attainder for traitors, resulting in the confiscation of their land. 3. To reform legislation to stop the abuse of power by local officials, improve the operation of justice in local courts and to end benevolences or forced loans.
•Although short lived, Richard’s parliament does suggest that he was a king who wished for his government to go along the path of reform.
•Richard also introduced a law during his reign that protected accused felons from losing their goods before conviction (innocent until proven guilty) which demonstrated how he was a just king.
FINANCES
•Richard outlawed benevolences early on in his reign. But depended on them in 1485 when Henry Tudor invaded, it seems that the nobility being unwilling to fund this battle may have partly resulted in its loss
•Richard sought stability with the finances by following the financial policies of his brother.
•He raised much of his revenue from acts of attainder passed on nobility who committed treason.
•Richard did not solve the financial weaknesses of the crown, however there was to some extent a measure of stability and efficiency in the collection of royal revenue.
THE REST OF HIS REIGN
•His unpopularity got worse when his son dies in 1484, quickly followed by his wife in 1485. Richard then made his plans know that he wanted to marry Elizabeth (Edward’s daughter-Richard’s niece!) This exposed him to accusations of incest and alienated enemies of the Woodville's who had gained from their recent downfall, they would go back to the top with this marriage.
•Richard felt obliged to make a public announcement of denial as rumours spread that he had murdered his wife due to his ‘incestuous passion’ As King
•Henry Tudor had spent most of his exile in Brittany, but Richard had promised the Duke of Brittany support of archers in their fight for independence from the French in return for Henry’s arrest.
•Henry Tudor fearing for his safety goes to France and it welcomed by Charles VIII who promises to fund Henry in his invasion of England as revenge for Richard interfering with Brittany.
•In August 1485 Henry Tudor invades with an army of French soldiers and other English exiles. However, Richard had been preparing for the invasion since December 1484.
•Henry gathered recruits on his way to Bosworth, Henry tried to convince the Stanley’s to support him, however Richard had George Stanley, Lord Stanley’s son as hostage in an attempt to maintain their support.
Henry’s Army
•Tired and hungry after a three-week forced march
•Not professional soldiers
•Lightly armed, mainly archers and spearmen
•He had cavalry in the form of nobility on horse back, which gave him the necessary mobility on the battlefield
•Henry relied on the military expertise of his uncle Jasper Tudor
Richard’s Army
•Well rested, better equipped and he had more cavalry
•He had heavier artillery
•Had the more favourable position on the high ground
•Polydore Vergil described Henry as a man who “bore the brunt longer than his own soldiers...who were almost out of hope of victory”.
•The turning point came when Richard decided to strike Henry down himself.
•Richard spotted Henry riding towards the Stanley’s with a small band of men. He attacked furiously and managed to take down some of Henry’s men. It was at this point that William Stanley (Henry’s step-uncle) rushed to Henry’s rescue.
•Richard was overwhelmed, and refused to leave the battlefield.
•Rumour has it that Richard’s blood soaked crown was found in a nearby bush and placed on Henry’s head to symbolise the end of the battle. Battle of Bosworth
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