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Important Court Cases That Helped Shape Education
Transcript of Important Court Cases That Helped Shape Education
What: Ramapo Central School District denied the Rothschild's an interpreter
When: November 29, 1989
Where: Ramapo, New York
Why: The school district wouldn't hire an interpreter for the Rothschilds.
What the Rothschilds wanted to happen: wanted servicese provided for parents who where handicapped
Outcome: The district had to provide them with an interpreter for meeting, but for extracurricular activities the Rothschild's had to provide one themselves. Pickering V Board of Education What: A high school science teacher wrote a letter to the editor of a local newspaper criticizing the board of educatioins allocation of funds between athletics and academics.
The school board terminated the teacher in saying that the letter contained false statments about the school. The teacher then sued saying that the board violated his 1st Amendment rights
Issue: Do school officals violate the teacher's 1st Amendment rights by terminating him for writing a letter to the newpaper.
Outcome- Voted 8-1 that the school officials did violate the 1st amendment rights. Public school teacher and public employees are entiled to some 1st Amendment protections.
http://www.firstamendmentschools.org/freedoms/case.aspx?id=317 What: Did the Rhode Island and Pennsylvania school districts violate the first Amendmet by making state finances availabile to Chuch related educational institutions.
When: March 3, 1971
Decision: 8 votes Lemon 0 votes against
Legal Provisions: found that the passing of any state laws that establish a religious body is a direct violation of the United States Constitution.
Creation of the Lemon Test
1. It must have secular legislative purpose
2. its principle primary effect must neither advance nor inhibit religion
3. Must not foster exccessive entanglement between government and religion
http://kids.laws.com/lemon-v-kurtzman Lemon Vs. Kurtzman Who: La Fleur and Nelson vs. Cleveland Board of Education
What: teachers were forced to take maternity leave once they reached their 5th month of their pregnancy. They claimed that they were being deprived of their liberty rights without due process of law in violation of the 14th Amendment.
Ruling: The Cleveland Board of Education violated the rights of pregnant women by making them take an unpaid maternity leave several months before the child was born. The courts said that cutoff dates were too restrictive and that they violated a woman’s basic human right to marry and procreate. Cleveland Board of Education V. La Fleur Who: Edwards-Louisiana’s Creationism Act and Aquillard-parents with children attending public schools.
What: Creationism act- both evolution and creation being taught. And against the Creationism Act.
Did the Louisiana law, which mandated the teaching of "creation science" along with the theory of evolution, violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment as applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment?
Ruling: Yes, Law was held to violate the Constitution. Court used the three-pronged test to see if it had any potential violations to the Establishment Clause. It failed on all three tests. 7-2 decision, the court held that Creationism Act was intended to promote religion, and therefore violated the Establishment Clause. Edwards V. Aguillard Who: James Ingraham
When: November 2, 1976
What: Student claimed that being paddled was a violation of their 8th Amendment rights.
Ruling: "Cruel and unusual punishment" only applied to those convicted of a crime, not actions of public schools.
Just a little info-- 19 states in the US still allow spanking. Missouri is one of the 19.
http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0430_0651_ZS.html Ingraham vs. Wright Brown V. Board of Education Who: Oliver Brown
what: Black educators wanted to be given the equal rights
When: December 1954
Does the segregation of childern in public schools soley on the basis of race deprive the minority children of the equal protection of the laws garanteed by the 14th amendment?
Ruling: 9-0. Segregation of whites and blacks ended after the ruling of this case.