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Scuba Diving

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by

Emily Power

on 19 December 2012

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Transcript of Scuba Diving

History History History 1943
Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan invented the Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, better known as “SCUBA”
redesigned a car regulator that provides air on the slightest of intake
Dive Bells=1st effective means of staying underwater
16th century
supplied air from the surface by trapping compressed air by water pressure
The diver would return to the bell for just enough air to descend for time to collect coral or see the bottom. Later full leather dive suits came about.
Air was manually pumped from the surface into to the metal helmet that could withstand great pressure
Divers could go deeper for a longer period of time The rebreather has become more widely used within the past decade. Examples: With the use of more silicones, stronger plastics, and metal alloys, modern gear has the potential to last a lifetime
Lighter, more resilient and easier to handle Advancements Full face mask allows radio communication between divers on the surface and underwater
Recent developments of “heads-up” LCD displays include masks that show information at the touch of a button right in front of the diver’s eyes. The Professional Association of Diving Instructors
most culturally and ethnically diverse group of recreational professionals.
Founded in 1966 by John Cronin and Ralph Erickson Courses Open Water certification
Learn how to dive independently, understand the equipment, and plan, conduct, and log open water dives
The class consists of three main phases. Gear People’s eyes need air to focus; therefore, divers where masks to provide an air space
The air space must be equalized to relieve pressure during descent to prevent a mask squeeze (this is why the mask encloses the nose) Fins provide a large surface area so the diver’s leg muscles can move through the water with less trouble.
Styles of fins include the adjustable strap and full foot. Gear Understanding buoyancy helps you control where you are in the water.
To control buoyancy divers use a buoyancy control device, better known as a BCD Gear Divers inflate the BCD to increase the volume or deflate to decrease volume. This changes buoyancy at any time during a dive
The most common style is the jacket BCD Gear The regulator is what makes it possible to breathe the air in the tank.
Reduces the scuba cylinder’s high pressure air to match the surrounding water pressure.
It only delivers air on demand, when the diver inhales.
Includes two stages . The first stage attaches to the cylinder to regulate pressure. The second is the mouthpiece which reduces intermediate pressure. Gear Dive computers combine depth gauges, timers, and sometimes submersible pressure gauges into one single instrument Gear Cylinders store high-pressure air so divers have something to breathe underwater.
A good cylinder is fundamental to any dive and must be able to safely carry a sufficient volume of air.
Made of aluminum or steel. Aluminum holds up against corrosion better, but steel can hold just as much air in a smaller cylinder at high pressure Gear Weight systems make divers sink by adding just enough weight to offset positive buoyancy
Weight Belt
Integrated weight system Unlike marine mammals, with millions of years of evolution, human beings need the use of technology to compensate for the effects of underwater pressure Safety Safety Coping with increased pressure is a diver’s most important consideration. Air enters the sinuses as the diver descends, maintaining equal pressure between the air spaces in the head and the pressure of the surrounding water.
If sinuses are blocked (example-cold) the diver may experience pain as the bone cavities of the sinuses try to compress. To compensate, they may fill with blood.
To equalize the ears from pressure, divers use the valsalva maneuver. Safety If the diver were to hold their breath, blocking the airway while ascending, the lungs will over-expand.
Lung over-expansion
Most serious injury
Can force air into the bloodstream and chest cavity = severe injuries including paralysis and possibly death Safety Most important rule = breathe continuously Safety The Divers Code A diver should maintain buoyancy control so that no contact with marine life occurs.
No collection of shells or coral, no touching, harassing, or feeding of marine animals. Also, keep a distance from larger mammals
Coral reefs consist of tiny creatures called polyps, which are coated in a protective layer.
Contact exposes the polyp to infection and risk of disease or death. Rocky reefs are also vulnerable because they may be covered by microscopic organisms which can be destroyed by touch Jobs Marine construction includes exploration jobs for research, or for engineers that plan on building underwater structures.
Underwater engineering involves repairing and building structures underwater. This also includes salvage diving.
Military diving is challenging and the process required to become this type of diver is quite tough.
Offshore oil exploration has surveying duties and performs maintenance work. Jobs Underwater photography
Entertainment job, including taking underwater pictures, film, or performing stunts Reef diving Thrilling encounters with an array of marine life.
Extremely delicate
Divers should not touch or shine lights into cracks or crevices because it could disturb marine life Wreck Diving Offers flat surfaces for marine life to colonize.
Nooks and crannies are used as hiding places.
Smaller fish are drawn to feed on algae or crusting organisms, so larger predators tend to follow
Wrecks are safe when dived from the outside. Penetrating a wreck can be unsafe due to poor visibility and the chance of the top caving in Main Points History
Types of certifications
Requirements for each type
Reasons to get certified Scuba Diving By: Emily Power Advanced Diving
Online class
Volunteering- Filling tanks & learning about camera
Scrapbook Gear Scuba equipment allows divers to breathe underwater by delivering air at an equal pressure to the surrounding water pressure Decompression
Chamber A disorder, seen especially in deep-sea divers
Caused by the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the blood and tissues following a sudden drop in the surrounding pressure, as when ascending rapidly from a dive
Also, known as bends Organizations The National Association of Underwater Instructors Dive Computer Product Reasons to get certified
Full transcript