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Localization, Linux Boot Process and Bootloaders

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Lindiwe Hove

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of Localization, Linux Boot Process and Bootloaders

Localization, Linux Boot process and Bootloaders By: Lindiwe Hove Localization: lOCALIZATION Once you have installed a Linux system, for example that required in the virtual system assignment, you need to configure the locale settings. These settings determine how the system behaves and how it is displayed. It determines the following output settings:
• Number format setting
• Character classification, case conversion settings
• Date-time format setting
• String collation setting
• Currency format setting
• Paper size setting
The settings are configured through the use of environment variables:
LANG LANGUAGE Localization Localization LC_NUMERIC
This is used for number formatting (such as the decimal point and the thousands separator).
It is for time and date formatting. It changes the behavior to display the current time in a locally acceptable form; for example, most of Europe uses a 24-hour clock versus the 12-hour clock used in the United States.
How names are represented (surname first or last, etc.).
How addresses are formatted (country first or last, where zip code goes etc.). A locale is a set of user preference information related to the user's language, environment and/or cultural conventions. This information is represented as a list of values used to determine the correct input language, keyboard layout, sorting order, and the formats used for numbers, dates, currencies and time. In order for a particular locale to be available for selection, the appropriate language group must be installed. LC_COLLATE
Is used for regular expression matching or sorting rules (it determines the meaning of range expressions and equivalence classes) and string collation. For example, the German sharp s is sorted as "ss".
Used for regular expression matching, character classification, conversion, case-sensitive comparison, and wide character functions.
This is used for monetary formatting. It describes the way numbers are usually printed, with details such as decimal point versus decimal comma.
This is used for localizable natural-language messages. It changes the language messages are displayed in and what an affirmative or negative answer looks like. LC_TELEPHONE
What your telephone numbers look like.
What units of measurement are used (feet, meters, pounds, kilos etc.).

Used for the entire locale. It is used to override all the previously mentioned environmental variables.
This provides the default locale for all of the LC variables. Localization LANGUAGE
This can be used to override the LC_MESSAGES variables.

In terms of priority:
LC_ALL – if not populated
LC_ ….. – if not populated

There is a format for all the environment variables:

It refers to an implementation-provided locale, where settings of language, territory, and codeset are implementation-defined.

Language – is the Lang code - represents the ISO 639 and is always in lower case i.e. for english en_

Territory – is the country code, represents ISO 3166 and is always in upper case. I.e. For United States _US
Codeset - UTF-8 Localization UTF-8 (UCS Transformation Format—8-bit is a variable-width encoding that can represent every character in the Unicode character set. UTF-8 has become the dominant character encoding for the World-Wide Web, accounting for more than half of all Web pages.

All together the environment variable = en_US.UTF-8 Localization To view locales:

Type at the shell prompt: locale
Environmental variables will be displayed together with their associated values.

•charmap displays the character encoding.
•-a lists all installed locales.
•-m lists all installed character encoding options.

iconv Convert encoding from one encoding type to another.
•-f specifies the source encoding type.
•-t specifies the destination encoding type.
•-o specifies the output and input file. Localization Example - If we wanted to change the locale settings to Australian.
We would use the LC_ALL locale:
LC_ALL = “en_AU.UTF-8”
Export LC_ALL
•Then it updates the locales to english in Australia. To check if a different language has been used, you can type the man command (for manual)
•Type man man in the command prompt and you notice that the language for the manuals has changed. (hit q to exit) Localization
This process can be explained in different steps.

1.The BIOS phase
2.The Bootloader phase
3.The kernel phase Linux Boot Process The BIOS is the first code executed by the processor upon boot. When power is initially applied to the computer this triggers the RESET pin on the processor. This causes the processor to read from a memory location and begin executing the code located there. This address is mapped to the Read-Only Memory (ROM) containing the BIOS.

BIOS functionality can be broken into three areas: Power On Self Test (POST), Setup and Boot. The BIOS is a ROM chip implemented on the motherboard and it contains small programs that allow communication between the CPU and basic system devices I.e. keyboards, speakers and hard drive. The BIOS then tests these system components to ensure they’re in correct working order. This part of testing is then the Power On Self Test (POST). If these tests are successful, the BIOS then starts to boot the system. The Master Boot Record (MBR) tells the BIOS where the Bootloader resides. BIOS Phase Bootloader Phase The Bootloader is software the BIOS loads from MBR of the hard drive, which then allows the CPU to access the disk and load an operating system into RAM (memory). A menu is displayed listing the operating systems available. Good for dual boot systems. The Bootloader creates a temporary virtual file system in the system RAM – this is the RAM disk. Kernel Phase The Bootloader loads the linux kernel into the RAM. The kernel starts off with initializing the basic hardware in the system using the settings obtained from the BIOS and CMOS chip. Following this the kernel searches for them and uses the initrd file system to run the linuxrc program to set up the system. When this is done, the services are loaded and the system is ready for log in and use. The default loader used by most configurations is the Grand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB) is a utility that boots a Linux kernel, or any other operating system from the hard disk drive.
GRUB has two stages:

oStage 1 is the information stored in the master boot record. It holds the location of the boot information.

oStage 2 is the operating system software located on the boot partition. Bootloaders The End... www.testout.com
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Locale References:
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