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Na'omi Thorinson

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of NATO

Kathi Gentry
Cristina Morse
Lana Oplanko
Teredane Daguison
Na'omi Thorinson

Threat of Communism eases
Glasnost and perestroika

Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact dissolves

Is there any further need for an Atlantic Alliance?
End of the Cold War

Article 5

“an armed attack against one or more of them…shall be considered an attack against them all” and that following such an attack, each Ally would take “such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force” in response.
The Treaty

United States
The Marshall Plan

Soviet Union
Expansionism in Eastern Europe
After World War II
Flexible Response

The Harmel Report

NATO in The Cold War
The Soviets were afraid of an American attack once West Germany joined NATO

The Soviet Union and other communist states in Central & Eastern Europe created a mutual defense treaty on May 14, 1955 to defend each other in case NATO attacked them
Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance
(Warsaw Pact)
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in April 2, 1951

The NATO military structure
Creation of SHAPE
An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April 4, 1949.

The Alliance’s creation was part of a broader effort to serve three purposes:
- deterring Soviet expansionism
- forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe
- encouraging European political integration
Creation of NATO
International Organizations

1991- develops partnership with former adversaries after the break-up of the soviet union
NATO Key Events…
Article 5, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-26CEFFB0-F6FE4309/natolive/topics_59378.htm
Slide 3, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_52122.htm
Slide 8, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_52060.htm
2010-adopts the 2010 strategic concept “active engagement, modern defense”
To ensure effectiveness in protecting peace and security. NATO is developing new defense against threats such as: unconventional attack from terrorist, weapons of mass destruction and cyber attacks. Be more involved in counter insurgency operations. Build a strong alliance with key partners, cooperating with non-governmental organizations and build Euro-Atlantic stability through security cooperation with Russia. Leave the door open for new members, new military transformation and reforms and to, find a way to tell more effectively ‘NATO’s story’ to publics inside and outside the Alliance.
NATO Key events…
2001-Large scale terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D.C. NATO invokes Article 5 for the first time ever and adopts a broader approach to security
NATO key events…
1995-engages in its first major crisis management operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
A four-year war started in Bosnia and Herzegovina when Yugoslavia
The Alliance has been committed to building long-term peace and stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the wider Western Balkans, since the Alliance started actively supporting the international community’s efforts to end the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). NATO played a key role in implementing the Dayton Peace Agreement (formally, the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, or GFAP) and in securing this peace through peacekeeping deployments over a nine year period from December 1995 to December 2004.
NATO key events…
NATO in Afghanistan
NATO in Kosovo
Monitoring the Mediterranean Sea
Counter-piracy off the Horn of Africa
Supporting the African Union
current operations and missions
NATO Key Events…
1991- develops partnership with former adversaries after the break-up of the soviet union
Article 5 “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
NATO key events…
2003- NATO takes command of the International Security Assistance Force - ISAF - in Afghanistan

Since August 2003, the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) has been conducting security operations, while also training and developing the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). NATO’s primary objective in Afghanistan is to enable the Afghan authorities to provide effective security across the country and ensure that the country can never again be a safe haven for terrorists.

ISAF- trains, advises, and assist the Afghan national security forces so that they can take over their countries responsibilities without NATO/ISAF and instil peace and security. ISAF will end in 2014, and the Afghan national security force are expected to assume full security for their people and country
NATO Stucture
•The Headquarters is located in Brussels, Belgium. It is home to national delegations of member countries.
•Representatives from all the member states come together to make decisions on a consensus basis.
•About 4,000 people work at NATO Headquarters on a full-time basis.
•More than 5,000 meetings take place every year among NATO bodies.
National Delegations
•Each NATO member country has a delegation at NATO Headquarters
•The delegation is headed by an ambassador, who is appointed by his/ her government for a period ranging between one to eight years.
•A Delegation’s function is to represent its country’s government and contribute to the consultation process, which allows NATO to take collective decisions or actions.
National Delegations (continued)
•The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body at NATO. Each member country has a seat at the NAC.
•It meets at least once a week or whenever there is a need. It is chaired by the Secretary General who helps members reach agreement.
•The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) has similar power and is responsible for nuclear matters in the Alliance and discusses specific policy issues associated with nuclear forces. NPG meets annually.
International Staff
•The main role of the IS is to provide advice, guidance and administrative support to the national delegations at NATO Headquarters.
•Staff members are recruited from member countries.
•The IS is divided into 7 divisions: Political Affairs and Security Policy Division, Defence Policy and Planning Division, Operations Division, Defence Investment Division, Emerging Security Challenges Division, Public Diplomacy Division, and Executive Management Division.
NATO Budget
•Member countries make direct and indirect contributions to the costs of running NATO and implementing its policies and activities.
•Member countries contribute to NATO in accordance with an agreed cost-sharing formula based on Gross National Income.
• http://www.nato.int/wcm-asp/recruit-wide.asp
Provide consensus-based advice on military policy and strategy to the NAC and the commanders
Responsible for guiding NATO’s two strategic commanders

Supreme allied commander operations
Supreme allied commander transformation
Roles and Responsibilities
Involvement between political decisions and the military

Military committee (MC) :chiefs of defence of NATO member countries
International military staff
The committee executive body
Military command structure
Address and determine threats from other countries
Preserving cohesion
Military Command Structure
Senior military officers (MILREPs)
Iceland, no military forces – represented by civilian officers
Few permanent forces
Member countries contribute forces voluntarily
Forces return to their countries after mission
Leads transformation of NATO’s military structure.
Trains commanders and staff
Determine new concepts and ideas.
Allied Command Transformation
Responsible for planning and execution of all alliance operations.
Consisted of a small number of permanently established headquarters.
Operates in 3 levels
Aim to safeguard freedom, preserve and restore the security of NATO member countries.
Allied Command Operations
Senior military authority in NATO
Oldest permanent body, just behind the North Atlantic Council (NAC)
Meets frequently with military representatives
Meets 3 times a year with Chiefs of Defence
Run by Chairman of the military committee, nominated for 3-year term
Primary source of military guidance to NATO’s “decision making bodies”
North Atlantic Council
Nuclear Planning Group
Military Committee (MC)
2 branches
Allied command operations (ACO)
Allied command transformation (ACT)
Composed of:
NATO Alliances
Push for Partnership Progress –
NATO Secretary General’s blog
•To Create Global Security

•Countries Willing to develop a relationship

•NATO Partners do not have the same decision-making power of NATO Members
Comprehensive Approach
•Working with Civilians
•Effective Crisis Management Calls
~Involves political, civilian, and military instruments
•“NATO needs to work more closely with our civilian partners on the ground, and at a political level – especially in the European Union and the United Nations” ~Secretary General Rasmussen (NATO, 2012)
•Latest Member: Australia, in 2012
•The Nations are divided up into different councils
~Working Together for Global Security
•At Least Three Councils, International Partners and Global Partners
Euro-Atlantic Partnership
Council (EAPC)
NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue
Istanbul Cooperative Initiative (ICI)
Partners Across the Globe
United Arab Emirates
Republic of Korea
New Zealand
•United Nations (UN)
•European Union (EU)
•Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
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