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CCAPS: Urban Resilience to Climate Change in Africa

Research undertaken by 18 graduate students at the University of Texas' Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs
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on 6 August 2013

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Transcript of CCAPS: Urban Resilience to Climate Change in Africa

URBAN RESILIENCE TO
CLIMATE CHANGE IN AFRICA

North African Countries
Other Least-Developed
Countries (LDCs)
South Africa
Research Questions
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
2315 RED RIVER STREET
AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712

PHONE: 512-471-6267
FAX: 512-471-6961

CCAPS@STRAUSSCENTER.ORG
WWW.STRAUSSCENTER.ORG/CCAPS

This material is based upon work supported by, or in part by,
the U.S. Army Research Office contract/grant number W911NF-09-1-0077
under the Minerva Initiative of the U.S. Department of Defense.
How will the consequences of future climate change affect people living in African cities and what determines the vulnerability to these exposures?
Are initiatives for building urban resilience being developed in cities? What factors explain the variation across cites?
Are resilience initiatives being adequately and sustainably implemented? Do governments and other actors have the capacity needed to be effective?
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Directors



Accra



Alexandria



Cape Town



Casablanca



Dakar



Dar es Salaam


Johannesburg


Kampala



Luanda



Maputo

Dr. Robert Wilson
Todd Smith
Idda Swai
Niniane Tozzi
Ala Ahmad
Amanda Brown
Katrin Greisberger
Alexandra Sterling
Mely Jacobson
Allison Minor
Elena Rodriguez
Amy Suntoke
Julia Brothers
Todd Smith
Sarah McDuff
Abigail Ofstedahl
Daniel Guerra
Ross Van Horn
Thais Macedo
Jodie Vanyo
Context
Africa will pass the 50 percent urban mark in 2030
- Creates significant development challenges
- These challenges also compound the effects of climate change
Exposure
Vulnerabilities
Increased intensity of storms
Increased precipitation in east Africa and southern Africa
Flooding
Major cities of Africa concentrated along coast
Estimated 16 to 27 million people across the continent will be flooded annually by 2100
- North Africa and Nile Delta
Sea Level Rise
Decreased precipitation in north Africa, northern Sahara, West Africa
90 to 220 million will suffer increased water stress due to climate change by 2020
Water Scarcity
& Drought
Goals
To examine the potential of governments to address these vulnerabilities
Methodology
Exploratory Framework

Comparative Case Studies

City Selection Method

Field Work
Alexandria,
Egypt
Casablanca,
Morocco
Dakar,
Senegal
Accra,
Ghana
Kampala,
Uganda
Luanda,
Angola
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Maputo,
Mozambique
Johannesburg,
South Africa
Cape Town,
South Africa
Urban Resilience: Plans
International priorities influence planning mainly at the national level
Local government agenda setting is heavily influenced by short-term needs, especially rapid onset climate hazards
Local governments rarely engage in policymaking explicitly motivated by consequences of climate change
National governments both empower and impede climate change agenda setting in local governments
Urban Resilience: Implementation
In the ten cities, plans addressing natural disasters are more likely to be locally implemented than climate change plans. 
Conclusions

Local governments face new, complex policy issues
Lack of consensus on the nature of the problem
A multidimensional issue
Complex institutional environment with limited local government capacity
Stuff n' things
More info on Casablanca
Alexandria,
Egypt
Casablanca,
Morocco
Dakar,
Senegal
Accra,
Ghana
Kampala,
Uganda
Luanda,
Angola
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Maputo,
Mozambique
Johannesburg,
South Africa
Cape Town,
South Africa
NGOs and Community Organizations
University Affiliates
Local Government Officials
National Government Officials
Multilateral/Bilateral Organizations

Local resources often limited
Resources and organizational structures in different spheres
International resources: funds for research/planning, not always for implementation
Adaptation strategies can be very expensive
Conclusions

Centralization: local government has little to no agency/authority
Inefficient decentralization
Many local governments not fulfilling potential
But need for capacity is recognized - widespread efforts to improve

Immediate/tangible prioritized over long-term/abstract
Disaster risk management is prioritized over climate change adaptation
Resilience measures not always tied to climate change
What initiatives get attention?
- Those tied to a more pressing priority (energy, health, economy)
- Those prioritized by donors or international organizations
Flooding in Maputo
Photo Credit: UN-Habitat Mozambique / 2012
Informal Settlements in Luanda
Photo Credit: Danny Guerra / 2012
1. Complex Concepts
2. Resource Availability/Quality
3. Local Government Capacity
4. Other Priorities
Damage from hazards depends on resilience
Informal Settlements

- Large informal settlement populations common to all cities in this study
- Marginalized, without services or infrastructure
- Often in vulnerable areas
- Not resilient to shocks

- Drainage
- Management of water resources and efficient use
- Development of coastal areas and wetlands
- Disaster response

Basic infrastructure & services
Context
Our project was based on several observations:
- A rural orientation in climate change initiatives
- A need to focus on climate change adaptation and disaster risk
management
- An awareness that a combination of climate exposure and limited
adaptive capacity make Africa especially susceptible to the effects
of climate change
Trash Build-Up In Kampala
Photo Credit: Sarah McDuff / 2012
Managing climate disasters when they occur
Planning & implementation to improve long-term resilience
Ocean-Side Communities in Accra
Photo Credit: Idda Swai / 2012
Low Coastal Barriers in Alexandria
Photo Credit: Ala Ahmad / 2012
Flash Flooding hits a Morocco Oil Refinery
Photo Credit: The AP/BBC News, "Morocco floods hit oil plant," 27 November 2002, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2517945.stm
Urban Sprawl in Casablanca
Photo Credit: Development Innovations Group, http://www.urbisnetwork.com/documents/CasablancaBestPracticesinSlumImprovement-WUF.pdf
Implementation depends on type of plan 
Barriers to Implementation
Government centralization
Physical proximity
Coordination
Enforcement
1. Organizational Structure of Local Government
2. Resource Availability
Degree of development
Poor infrastructure
Human capital
Rural v. urban
Geographic scale of hazard
Informal settlements
- Urban planning
- Political will
3. Location of Problem
Examples of Successful Implementation
NGO’s

Climate change integration

Improvements in city planning
North African Countries
Other Least-Developed
Countries (LDCs)
South Africa
Stuff n' things
More info on Casablanca
Alexandria,
Egypt
Casablanca,
Morocco
Dakar,
Senegal
Accra,
Ghana
Kampala,
Uganda
Luanda,
Angola
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Maputo,
Mozambique
Johannesburg,
South Africa
Cape Town,
South Africa
Stuff n' things
More info on Casablanca
Alexandria,
Egypt
Casablanca,
Morocco
Dakar,
Senegal
Accra,
Ghana
Kampala,
Uganda
Luanda,
Angola
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Maputo,
Mozambique
Johannesburg,
South Africa
Cape Town,
South Africa
City Selection Process
1. Climate hazards to which the city is exposed

2. Geographic location, region of the continent, as well as coastal and inland cities

3. Colonial legacy and institutional development

4. Governance capacity

5. Socio-economic conditions and level of development
Beach-Front Hotel Construction in Maputo
Photo Credit: Die Kapp / 05 March 2011, http://www.urbika.com/projects/view/4562-radisson-blu-maputo
Full transcript