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History of Rock

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Patrick Higgins

on 12 May 2013

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Transcript of History of Rock

Big Mama
Thornton, 1952 Elvis Presley, 1956 Lightnin' Hopkins 1928
Black Cadillac 1950s - How Rockabilly changed into Rock n' Roll The 'King of Rock n Roll' Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. A cultural icon, he is commonly known by the single name Elvis, or 'The King'. Berry Gordy
Founder of the MOTOWN Sound After a successful stint writing for Jackie Wilson, Detroit-based songwriter Berry Gordy decided that there was more money to be made in the music business as a producer than as a songwriter.
Taking out a loan, he founded the Tamla Records label and started signing local talent.
Following up early successes with the creation of the Hitsville USA studio, Gordy started a second label to supplement Tamla.
Its name was a portmanteau of the Detroit nickname, "Motor City" or "Motown". From there, Tamla Motown (along with such associated labels as Gordy, Soul, and V.I.P.) went out to conquer the world of pop. Explaining the technology
used in the original Hammond
There were many varieties of the Hammond organ, some designed for home use, some designed for church use, and some designed for live gigs and studio recording. But the most popular variety, and the one still commonly in use today is the Hammond B-3. Syncopated Rhythm: Throw a pair of jeans in the dryer. Chances are the rhythm you hear will be syncopated.

When you see a piece of music you can immediately identify the time signature that it is in, and see where the emphasis should be placed when playing the music. If the piece is in 4/4 time for example you would expect the beat, or emphasis, to be on the 1st and 3rd notes in the measure, or in 3/4 time on the 1st note in each measure. That is unless the piece of music has been composed using syncopation! Make note, so to be able to answer these Questions during the films:
Who and Where did the start of the electric guitar come from
Name 3 Famous Guitars
Why did the need for electric guitars come about
Who was Fender, & what did he do
What did Gibson do, & who did he work with
What was the base of Paul's guitar Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s These are the main different styles of Music that went into Rock n' Roll. Born in Centerville, Texas, Hopkins learned the blues in Buffalo, from Blind Lemon Jefferson.
When Hopkins was playing in Houston in 1946, he was discovered by Lola Anne Cullum of Los Angeles', Aladdin Records. Hopkins' fast finger style was very distinct.
His masterpiece song Mojo Hand was produced in 1960.
His style was born from spending many hours playing informally without a backing band.
His style often included playing, in effect, bass, rhythm, lead, percussion, and vocals, all at the same time.
His musical phrasing would often include a long low note at the beginning, the rhythm played in the middle range, then the lead in the high range. By playing this quickly - with occasional slaps of the guitar - the effect of bass, rhythm, percussion and lead would be created. Leadbelly continued.... While in prison Leadbelly wrote and sung for the governor, which lead him to an early release.
It was also at this time, that he recorded for the Library of Congress musicologists John and Alan Lomax.
His song 'Midnight Special' that he recorded, were eventually covered by other artists like Frank Sinatra & Johnny Cash.
'Midnight Special is a perfect example of Mississippi Delta Blues, that would find it's way North during the Second Great Migration, and morph into Chicago Blues. Leadbelly (1888-1949) Born Huddie Ledbetter, Leadbelly's lead an interesting life.
His musical repertoire extended beyond the blues to cover ragtime, country, folk, and even gospel.
While playing with Blind Lemon Jefferson in Texas, he honed his skills on the twelve-string guitar.
Leadbelly had quite the temper, which landed him in jail 3 times. It was from his fellow inmates, he got the nickname 'Leadbelly'. Be it a play off of his real name, Ledbetter, or the fact he took a shotgun blast to the stomach. Lightnin' Hopkins T-Bone Walker He got his nickname T-Bone at an early age, with the shortening of his middle name Thibeaux.
By the time he was 10, he became the “lead boy” for Blind Lemon Jefferson, who was the most popular and influential country bluesman of the Twenties. From 1920 to 1923, Walker would lead Jefferson down Texas streets. He first recorded as T-Bone Walker in 1942, and the following year he had his biggest hit.
“Stormy Monday” has become one of the most frequently covered blues songs.
Walker recorded for Black & White Records, the label that released “Stormy Monday,” until 1947.
In 1950, Walker signed with Imperial Records. At Imperial, he cut “The Hustle Is On,” “Cold Cold Feeling,” “Blue Moon,” “Vida Lee” and “Party Girl.” Delta Blues & Jazz Albert Ammons Albert Ammons was one of the big boogie-woogiers of the 1930s.
Ammons played in Chicago clubs from the 1920s on although he also worked as a cab driver for a time.
Starting in 1934 he led his own band in Chicago and he made his first records in 1936. In 1938 Ammons appeared at Carnegie Hall that really helped launch the boogie - woogie craze.
Ammons recorded with the other pianists in duets and trios, fit right in with the Port of Harlem Jazz men on their Blue Note session.
He played at President Harry Truman's inauguration in 1949; he died later that year. Peter Johnson Pete Johnson was one of the three great boogie-woogie pianists whose sudden prominence in the late '30s helped make the style very popular.
Originally a drummer, Johnson switched to piano in 1922.
He was part of the Kansas City scene in the 1920s and '30s, often accompanying singer Big Joe Turner.
He also backed Turner on some classic records. Johnson recorded often in the 1940s and spent much of 1947-49 based in Los Angeles. Together they sound like this.... All three of them together... Meade Lux Lewis One of the three great boogie-woogie pianists (along with Albert Ammons and Pete Johnson) whose appearance at John Hammond's 1938 Spirituals to Swing concert helped start the boogie-woogie craze.
Meade Lux Lewis was a powerful if somewhat limited player.
He played regularly in Chicago in the late '20s and his one solo record of the time "Honky Tonk Train Blues" was considered a classic.
Lewis gained little extra work in the music business, but slowly slipped into obscurity.
John Hammond heard Lewis's record in 1935, and after a search found Lewis washing cars for a living in Chicago. Soon Meade Lux Lewis was back on records and after the 1938 concert he was able to work steadily, sometimes in duets or trios with Ammons and Johnson. Boogie-
Woogie The similar related style called "honky-tonk", used small electrified bands, and flourished in rural Texas and Oklahoma taverns.
Ernest Tubb and Hank Williams were the leading pioneers of the "honky-tonk" style, packing roadside pubs and bars every Friday and Saturday evening with fans and curiosity seekers anxious to see and hear the fast-rising sounds of steel guitars and drums. Ernest Tubb Hank Williams You could even consider some of John Lennon's post-Beatles to be 'folk' music.... Western Swing is the blended elements of blues, jazz, and mainstream popular music, along with instrumentation of saxophones, drums and traditional fiddle-based string instruments. The post–World War II folk revival in America and in Britain started a new genre, contemporary folk music and brought an additional meaning to the term folk music. The term "folk", by the start of the 21st century, could cover singer song-writers, such as Bob Dylan, who emerged in the 1960s and much more. This completed a process to where "folk music" no longer meant only traditional folk music. Western Swing Honky-Tonk During the 1930s-1940s, two sub style emerged Bob Wills, often considered the father of Western Swing *Listen for the yodel that is popular with this style of music *Look at, and listen, for the different types of instruments that are used. What did you hear similar between these two bands? What was different? vs But this style of music ended up leading to a new sound that the baby boomers could get behind... Country -Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways:
as music transmitted by mouth,
as music of the lower classes,
as music with unknown composers.
-It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Folk The genre of Gospel music:
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context.
Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, and as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music in general is characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a Christian nature.
Subgenres include
contemporary gospel
urban contemporary gospel
Southern gospel
and modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and, increasingly, electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and often a more syncopated rhythm Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating to the early 1950s. It is a blend of country & western and rhythm & blues that... pointed the way to classic rock 'n' roll. It has also been defined as popular music combining features of rock 'n' roll and bluegrass. History
of: Electric Guitar: Was the electric guitar welcomed at first?
Why was Les Paul's design different? Follow Up Questions
?????? Harmmond B3 Hammond B3 continued.... Have heard the expression, "Pulling out all the stops?" The drawbars on the organ are these very stops. The organist can "voice" each stop as he plays. Meaning, any one of the nine drawbars that go into the makeup of an organ sound can be individually altered, either while playing, or permanently preset into one of the 9 preset keys. Each drawbar has eight degrees to which it can be literally "drawn" or pulled, out of the console of the organ, the eighth being the loudest, and all the way in being silence. Hammond B3 ....Part 3 The tone generator, except for the Pedal Solo Unit, which controls the sound generated by the pedals, is composed of 91 tone wheels, located inside the console. Each tone wheel generates magnetically one of the pitches of the fundamentals (the first harmonic) or the overtones, (all harmonics above the fundamental) of the many "stops". Rhythm continued..... Syncopation is where the emphasis is on a note other than the one expected. It could be that there is an irregular pattern in the group perhaps as the result of a brief quaver length pause that should be where the emphasis falls. It could be that the music has been composed in a way that has dotted crotchets paired with quavers. There are many different reasons for creating the imbalance on the beat but usually it is done purposefully and to create a certain effect. Rockabilly: There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the very earliest country recordings in the 1920s.
The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old '97", by Jimmie Rogers.
Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yolder".
Most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with very different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson.

Here is Johnny Cash covering 'Wreck of the old 97' More on Rockabilly... Here is a perfect example of why Rockabilly took off....Elvis Presley. Elvis covered many of the old Blues, Gospel, and Jazz songs that had been made popular by previous black artist. Gospel Buddy Holley Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known professionally as Buddy Holly, was an American singer-songwriter and a pioneer of rock and roll.
Holly is described by critic Bruce Eder as
"the single most influential creative
force in early rock and roll."
His works and innovations inspired
and influence contemporary and
later musicians, notably The Beatles,
Elvis Costello, The Rolling Stones,
Bob Dylan, and Eric Clapton, and
exerted a profound influence on
popular music.
Holly was among the first group of inductees to
the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.
In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Holly No. 13 among "The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time".
Holly saw Elvis Presley sing in Lubbock in 1955 on October 15, 1955. He began to incorporate a rockabilly style, which had a strong rhythm acoustic and slap bass. Jerry Lee Lewis An early pioneer of rock and roll music, in 1956 Lewis made his first recordings at Sun Records.
"Crazy Arms" sold 300,000 copies in the South, but it was his 1957 hit "Whole Lotta Shakin' Going On" that shot Lewis to fame worldwide.
Lewis followed this in that same year when he recorded songs such as "Great Balls of Fire", "Breathless" and "High School Confidential".
Formerly, rockabilly had rarely featured piano, but it proved an influential addition and rockabilly artists on other labels also started working with pianists.
As part of his stage act, Lewis would often kick the piano bench aside and play standing, rake his hands up and down the keyboard for dramatic accent, sit on the keyboard and even stand on top of the instrument. The Big Bopper Jiles Perry "J. P." Richardson, Jr. (October 24, 1930 – February 3, 1959) also commonly known as The Big Bopper, was an American disc jockey, singer, and songwriter whose big voice and exuberant personality made him an early rock and roll star.
Richardson — who played guitar — began his musical career as a songwriter.
George Jones later recorded Richardson's "White Lightning", which became Jones' first #1 country hit in 1959 (#73 on the pop charts). Richardson also wrote "Running Bear" for Johnny Preston, his friend from Port Arthur, Texas.
Richardson is also credited for creating the first music video in 1958, and recorded an early example himself. Richie Valens Ritchie Valens (born Richard Steven Valenzuela; May 13, 1941 – February 3, 1959) was a Mexican-American singer, songwriter and guitarist.
A rock and roll pioneer and a forefather of the Chicano rock movemet.
Valens' recording career lasted only eight months. During this time, he had several hits, most notably "La Bamba", which was originally a Mexican folk song.
Valens transformed the
song into one with a rock
rhythm and beat, and it
became a hit in 1958,
making Valens a pioneer
of the Spanish-speaking rock and roll movement.
Brought up hearing traditional Mexican mariachi music, flamenco guitar, R&B and jump blues, he expressed an interesting making music of his own by the age of 5.
While Ritchie was left-handed, he was so eager to learn the guitar that he mastered the traditionally right-handed version of the instrument American Pie...The Song, Not the Movie The Day the Music Died, dubbed so by Don McLean's song "American Pie", was an aviation accident that occurred on February 3, 1959, near Clear Lake, Iowa, killing rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation. 1960s Motown Sound, Haight-Ashbury, & More Motown -
Motown is a record company founded by Berry
Gordy, Jr. in 1959 in Detroit, Michigan, United States. The name, a portmanteau (combination of two (or more) words) of motor and town, is also a nickname for Detroit. Motown played an important role in the racial integration of popular music by achieving a crossover success. In the 1960s, Motown and its soul-based subsidiaries were the most successful proponents of what came to be known as "The Motown Sound", a style of soul music
with a distinct pop influence. As Eminem said in his song, 'Without Me'.....

"I'm not the first King of controversy, I am the worst thing since Elvis Presley, I do Black Music so selfishly, and do it to get myself wealthy" James Brown. . . The Godfather Soul James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and recording artist. He is one of the founding fathers of funk music and is a major figure of 20th century popular music and dance. In a career that spanned six decades, Brown profoundly influenced the development of many different musical genres. Brown moved on a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music making. For many years, Brown's touring show was one of the most extravagant productions in American popular music.
At the time of Brown's death, his band included three guitarists, two bass guitar players, two drummers, three horns and a percussionist.
The bands that he maintained during the late 1960s and 1970s were of comparable size, and the bands also included a three-piece amplified string section that played during ballads.
Brown employed between 40 and 50 people for the James Brown Revue, and members of the revue traveled with him in a bus to cities and towns all over the country. They would perform upwards of 330 shows a year with almost all of the shows as one-nighters. Look for the instruments that
are being played...... Brown's recordings during this period influenced musicians across the industry, most notably groups such as Sly and the Family Stone, Funkadelic, Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band, Booker T. & the M.G.'s.
As well as vocalists such as Edwin Starr, David Ruffin and Dennis Edwards from The Temptations, and Michael Jackson, who, throughout his career, cited Brown as his ultimate idol Lets look at how he influenced said people One can also see how he influenced may other entertainers in the way he danced. It wasn't just Michael Jackson that got his moves from the Godfather...here is James Brown, Michael Jackson, & Prince (symbol and non symbol) Like Sly & the Family Stone and James Brown, all different types of people were getting together to make music. This was from 1962, and were one of the first groups to do so. But it was starting to be less and less controversial of a topic when James and Sly did it. Like James Brown, they had a large band with redundit instruments. They were also one of the first multicultural bands to make it big. This is from 1970, and as you can see there are different people playing in the band. There were other bands that were multicultural before Sly, but music was not aired that much back in the '50s & '60s. You would have to watch variety shows like Ed Sullivan to see bands perform songs. If they were a multicultural band, chances were the camera would stay on the white members longer than other members. Remember that the '50s and early '60s was a time of segregation. As you listen to examples of Funk, listen to how close it is to James Brown. Same large band, but the sound is can be more laid back and experimental. Example
1 Example 2

Just because I
like Funk. Not nearly as large as what James Brown was, the Charles Wright & the Watts had the same instruments that James Brown had in is band. A more equal proportioned sound between all of the instruments, allowed for a more relaxed but powerful sound that came through. It also allowed the band to travel on one bus, instead of several. This is the song they are most know for.... Express Yourself. 27 Club The 27 Club is a term refers to popular musicians who have died at the age of 27. It is often a result of drug or alcohol abuse that leads to their deaths. The number of musicians who have died at this age, and the circumstances of many of those deaths, has given rise to the idea that premature deaths at this age are unusually common. Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) was an American blues singer and musician. His landmark recordings from 1936–37 display a combination of singing, guitar skills, and songwriting talent that has influenced later generations of musicians. Johnson's shadowy, poorly documented life and death at age 27 have given rise to much legend, including the Faustian myth that he sold his soul at a crossroads to achieve success. Lewis Brian Hopkins Jones (28 February 1942 – 3 July 1969) was an English musician and a bandleader of the Rolling Stones. Although he was originally the leader of the group, Jones' fellow band members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards soon overshadowed him, especially after they became a successful songwriting team. He developed a serious drug problem over the years and his role in the band steadily diminished. He was asked to leave the Rolling Stones in June 1969 and guitarist Mick Taylor took his place in the group. Jones died less than a month later by drowning in the swimming pool at his home on Cotchford Farm in Hartfield, East Sussex. Brian Jones James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American musician, singer and songwriter. Despite a limited mainstream exposure of four years, he is widely considered one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. To determine the cause of death, Coroner Gavin Thurston ordered a post-mortem examination on Hendrix's body, which was performed on September 21 by Professor Robert Donald Teare, a forensic pathologist. Thurston held the inquest on September 28, and concluded that Hendrix aspirated his own vomit and died of asphyxia while intoxicated with barbiturates. If was found that he took Vesparax sleeping tablets, 18 times the recommended dosage. Jimmy Hendrix Janis Lyn Joplin (January 19, 1943 – October 4, 1970) was an American singer-songwriter who first rose to prominence in the late 1960s as the lead singer of the psychedelic-acid rock. On October 4, 1970, producer Paul A. Rothchild became concerned when Joplin failed to show up. Upon entering Joplin's room, she was found dead on the floor beside her bed. The official cause of death was an overdose of heroin, possibly combined with the effects of alcohol Janis Joplin Jim Morrison James Douglas "Jim" Morrison (December 8, 1943 – July 3, 1971) was an American singer-songwriter and poet, best remembered as the lead singer of Los Angeles rock band The Doors. Following The Doors' explosive rise to fame in 1967, Morrison developed an alcohol dependency which led to his death at the age of 27 in Paris. He is alleged to have died of a heroin overdose, but as no autopsy was performed, the exact cause of his death is still disputed, as well as rumors floating of him faking his own death to escape the pressures of fame On April 8, 1994, Cobain's body was discovered at his Lake Washington home by an electrician named Gary Smith who had arrived to install a security system. Apart from a minor amount of blood coming out of Cobain's ear, the electrician reported seeing no visible signs of trauma, and initially believed that Cobain was asleep until he saw the shotgun pointing at his chin. A note was found, addressed to Cobain's childhood imaginary friend "Boddah", that stated that Cobain hadn't "felt the excitement of listening to as well as creating music, along with really writing . . . for too many years now". A high concentration of heroin and traces of diazepam were also found in his body. Cobain's body
had been lying there for days;
the coroner's report estimated
Cobain to have died on
April 5, 1994. Kurt Cobain - Nirvana Amy Winehouse Amy Jade Winehouse (14 September 1983 – 23 July 2011). Winehouse's bodyguard said that he arrived at her residence three days before her death and felt she was somewhat intoxicated. He observed moderate drinking over the next few days. At 10 am he observed her lying on her bed and tried unsuccessfully to rouse her. This did not raise much suspicion because she usually slept late after a night out. Shortly after 3 pm, he checked on her again and observed her lying in the same position as before, leading to a further check in which he concluded she was not breathing and had no pulse. A coroner's inquest reached a verdict that Winehouse's blood alcohol content was 0.416% at the time of her death. Please keep in mind, legal intoxication is 0.08%. Robert Leroy Johnson Because of the Second Great Migration, many former slaves moved to major urban areas.
New York City *
Detroit *
Chicago *

This meant that blacks and white were residing in close proximity to each other, than ever before.

Musicians heard each others music, and began to copy each other's styles. African American styles like jazz and swing, were taken up by white musicians.

This process is called "Cultural Collision". * DISCLAIMER *

You may never have heard of any of these musical artist, but give it a chance. Listen to the rhythms and sounds that each are known for, and see if you can place it with a contemporary song you know.
You can find some of the influence in present day Rock, Rap, and Country. Big Joe Turner - May 18, 1911 – November 24, 1985 Big Joe was an American "blues shouter" (a blues singer capable of singing unampplified with a band) from Kansas City, Missouri.
Turner was guitar player for the Count Base Orchestra, and was noticed when he would 'shout' during the refrain.
"Rock and roll would have never happened without him."- Doc Pomus (considered to be THE song writer for blues during the '50s)
His greatest fame came during the 1950s with his rock and roll recordings, particularly "Shake, Rattle and Roll". Big Joe Turner
Billy Haley &
The Comets Why do you think that Big Joe Turner's 'Shake, Rattle, and Roll' (which topped the charts in June of '54) was remade by Billy Haley in July of '54? He was one of the most popular blues singers of the 1920s, and has been titled "Father of the Texas Blues".
Though his recordings sold well, he was not so influential on some younger blues singers of his generation.
Later, blues and rock and roll musicians, attempted to imitate both his songs and his musical style.
His recordings would later influence such legends as B.B. King, T-Bone Walker, Lightnin' Hopkins, Son House "Blind" Lemon Jefferson (Lemon Henry Jefferson; September 24, 1893 – December 19, 1929) The term "rockabilly" is a portmanteau of "rock" and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music. Often called "hillbilly music" in the 1940s and 1950s, that contributed strongly to the style's development. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues. Its origins lie primarily in the Southern United States. Born in Tupelo, Mississippi, Presley moved to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family at the age of 13.
He began his career there in 1954, working with Sun Records owner Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience.
Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was the most important popularizer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country and rhythm and blues.
Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", released in January 1956, was a number-one hit.
He became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll. A series of network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs, many from African-American sources, and his uninhibited performance style made him enormously popular—and controversial. Summer of Love... The mainstream media's coverage of hippie life in the Haight-Ashbury drew the attention of youth from all over America.
The neighborhood's fame reached its peak as it became the haven for a number of the top psychedelic rock performers and groups of the time.
Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead and Janis Joplin all lived a short distance from the intersection.
They not only immortalized the scene in song, but also knew many within the community as friends and family.
Another well-known neighborhood presence was The Diggers, a local "community anarchist" group known for providing free food to residents every day. Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California.
The band was known for its unique and eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, reggae, country, improvisational jazz, psychedelia, and space rock.
The Grateful Dead played hundreds of different songs during their career, but a majority of these were covers. The number of original songs is much less, and some of their originals were only played a few times.
The fans of the Grateful Dead, know as "Deadheads", are know for their dedication to the band's music. The Grateful Dead Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band formed in San Francisco in 1965.
A pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement, Jefferson Airplane was the first psychedelic rock band to achieve mainstream commercial and critical success.
The bands name was explained by band member Jorma Kaukonen -
"I had this friend [Talbot] in Berkeley who came up with funny names for people," explains Kaukonen. "His name for me was Blind Thomas Jefferson Airplane. When the guys were looking for band names and nobody could come up with something, I remember saying, 'You want a silly band name? I got a silly band name for you!'"
Their 1967 record Surrealistic Pillow is regarded as one of the key recordings of the so-called Summer of Love, and brought the group international recognition.
Two chart hits from the album, "Somebody to Love" and "White Rabbit". She was known as "The Queen of Rock and Roll" as well as "The Queen of Psychedelic Soul".
Joplin's bluesy vocal style attracted the attention of the psychedelic rock band Big Brother and the Holding Company, a band that had gained some renown among the nascent hippie community in Haight-Ashbury.
Joplin appeared at Woodstock in the late hours of Saturday, August 16, 1969.
She performed until the early morning hours of Sunday, August 17.
Despite her not even knowing of the festival's existence, the Woodstock promoters were advertising her as a headliner. She thus became one of the main attractions of the historic concert.
Her biggest hit single, a cover of Kris Kristofferson's "Me and Bobby McGee".
On October 4, 1970, she was found dead on the floor beside her bed. The official cause of death was an overdose of heroin August 15 to August 18, 1969.
The Woodstock Music & Art Fair, better know as 'Woodstock' or the 'Woodstock Festival', was a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music".
It was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre dairy farm in the Catskills near the settlement of White Lake in the town of Bethel, New York. From Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York. During the on and off rainy weekend, thirty-two acts performed outdoors in front of 500,000 concert-goers.
These 32 acts, became the groups that supplied the soundtrack for a new generation of Americans
It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history.
Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll Tickets prices were

$7 for one day
$13 for two days
$18 for three days

which could be purchased in
select stores or via mail order. Opposite the stage was the FoH (Front of House which hosts sound and light engineers, soundboard, etc.) in a primitive tent. At the back was the recording equipment. Everything was recording on two eight-track recorders which was later used for official releases and the movie. The main stage was made of wood and was built shortly before the festival, organized by Chip Monk. It was about 20 × 15 × 15 meters and was covered by a big canvas. The towers for the speakers were made of metal and arranged all over the area. Everything was removed after the festival. In order to speed-up the changeover the stage had a turntable platform which was separated into two parts. The idea was to use the front for playing and the back for setting up the equipment of the next band so they only had to turn the platform around. Unfortunately the equipment was too heavy for the pedestal so the castors broke soon and it couldn't be turned anymore. The crew had to go back to traditional set-up and tear-down. Artist Time Notes

Richie Havens 5:07 pm – 7:00 pm
Swami Satchidananda 7:10 pm – 7:20 pm
Gave the opening speech/invocation for the festival
Sweetwater 7:30 pm – 8:10 pm
Bert Sommer 8:20 pm – 9:15 pm
Tim Hardin 9:20 pm – 9:45 pm
Ravi Shankar 10:00 pm – 10:35 pm
Melanie 10:50 pm – 11:20 pm
Arlo Guthrie 11:55 pm – 12:25 am
Joan Baez 12:55 am – 2:00 am
Was six months pregnant at the time Sunday, August 17 – Monday, August 18

Joe Cocker and The Grease Band 2:00 pm – 3:25 pm
After Joe Cocker's set, a thunderstorm disrupted the events for several hours.
Country Joe and the Fish 6:30 pm – 8:00 pm Country Joe McDonald's second performance.
Ten Years After 8:15 pm – 9:15 pm
The Band 10:00 pm – 10:50 pm
Johnny Winter 12:00 am – 1:05 am
Blood, Sweat & Tears 1:30 am – 2:30 am
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young 3:00 am – 4:00 am
An acoustic and electric set were played. Neil Young skipped most of the acoustic set.
Paul Butterfield Blues Band 6:00 am – 6:45 am
Sha Na Na 7:30 am – 8:00 am
Jimi Hendrix / Gypsy Sun & Rainbows 9:00 am – 11:10 am Saturday, August 16 – Sunday, August 17

Quill 12:15 pm – 12:45 pm
Country Joe McDonald 1:00 pm – 1:30 pm
Santana 2:00 pm – 2:45 pm
John Sebastian 3:30 pm – 3:55 pm
Keef Hartley Band 4:45 pm – 5:30 pm
The Incredible String Band 6:00 pm – 6:30 pm
Canned Heat 7:30 pm – 8:30 pm
Mountain 9:00 pm – 10:00 pm
Grateful Dead 10:30 pm – 12:05 am
their set was cut short after the stage amps overloaded during "Turn On Your Love Light"
Creedence Clearwater Revival 12:30 am – 1:20 am
Janis Joplin with The Kozmic Blues Band[29] 2:00 am – 3:00 am
Sly & the Family Stone 3:30 am – 4:20 am
The Who 5:00 am – 6:05 am
Jefferson Airplane 8:00 am – 9:40 am For the children of the baby boomers, Woodstock was a chance to let their freak flags fly. Grow their hair long, and perhaps most important of all, define themselves as a generation that didn't want anything to do with the values of their uptight, middle-class elders. Today, this self-described Woodstock nation has morphed into the very beings they rebelled against during that August weekend in 1969: Straight-shooting, buttoned-down, stressed-out parents. aef John Lennon, then aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank school.
They briefly called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen.
After discovering that a respected local group was already using the name The Blackjacks. Skiffle is a type of popular music with jazz, blues, folk, and roots influences, usually using homemade or improvised instruments. Originating as a term in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, it became popular again in the UK in the 1950s, where it played a major part in beginning the careers of later eminent jazz, pop, blues, folk and rock musicians. Skiffle is often said to have developed from New Orleans jazz, but this claim has been disputed. Improvised jug bands playing blues and jazz were common across the American South in the early decades of the twentieth century, even if the term skiffle was not used to describe them In March 1957, Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July.
In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band.
The fourteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon initially thought Harrison was too young to join. After a month of Harrison's persistence, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, and he began studies at the Liverpool College of Art.
The three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer.
Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had recently sold one of his paintings and purchased a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, and it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals (not a typo) as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used the name through May, and then they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle.
By early July, they changed their name to the Silver Beatles and by the middle of August to the Beatles. Their lack of a full-time drummer posed a problem when the group's unofficial manager, Allan Williams. He arranged a resident band booking for them in Hamburg, Germany, so in mid-August they auditioned and hired Pete Best. The band, now a five-piece, left four days later, contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 3½-month residency During the next two years, the Beatles were resident for periods in Hamburg.
Sutcliffe (Lennon's friend who joined right before they left for Germany) decided to leave the band early that year and resume his art studies in Germany, McCartney took up the bass to fill the void of the band.
After completing their second Hamburg residency, the band enjoyed increasing popularity in Liverpool, particularly in Merseyside, with the growing Merseybeat movement.
In April, tragedy greeted them upon their return from Germany. They received news of Sutcliffe's death from the previous day. It later be determined a brain haemorrhage was the cause of death.
Things went on, and the following month, George Martin signed the Beatles to EMI's Parlophone label. British beat, or Merseybeat (for bands from Liverpool beside the River Mersey) is a pop and rock music genre that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s.
Beat music is a fusion of rock and roll, doo-wop, skiffle and R&B.
The beat movement provided most of the bands responsible for the British invasion of the American pop charts in the period after 1964, and provided the model for many important developments in pop and rock music, including the format of the rock group around lead, rhythm and bass guitars with drums. Popular Dance Styles The Twist Swing Other Well Known Artists of the '50s The band's first recording session under Martin's direction took place at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London on 6 June 1962.
Martin immediately complained to Epstein about Best's poor drumming and suggested they use a session drummer in his stead.
Already contemplating Best's dismissal, the Beatles replaced him in mid-August with Ringo Starr.
Starr left 'Rory Storm and the
Hurricanes' to join the Beatles. Ringo got the Nickname 'Ringo', because of his love of wearing many ugly rings. 1963–66: Beatlemania "British Invasion"
The Beatles first received support from disk jockey Carrol James, who first played the band's records in mid-December 1963.
"I Want to Hold Your Hand" sold a million copies, becoming a number one hit in the US by mid-January.
Upon landing at New York's John F. Kennedy Airport, an uproarious crowd estimated at three thousand greeted them.
They gave their first live US television performance, 2.9.64, on The Ed Sullivan Show, and was watched by approximately 73 million viewers in over 23 million households, or 34 percent of the American population. Clash of Cultures - From Across the 'Pond' In August, the Beatles meet Bob Dylan.
Visiting the band in their New York hotel suite, Dylan introduced them to cannabis.
Dylan's audience was complied of -
college kids with artistic or intellectual leanings
dawning political and social idealism
mildly bohemian style"
In contrast, the Beatle's fans were -
'teenyboppers'—kids in high school or grade school whose lives were totally wrapped up in the commercialized popular culture.
Within six months of the meeting, Lennon would be making records on which he openly imitated Dylan's style of singing and content.
Dylan would have a five-piece group, and a Fender Stratocaster guitar. He did this in hope to remove the 'folk' stereotype that he had been labeled with.
By doing this, the distinctions between the folk and rock audiences would slowly evaporated, and audiences started showing signs of growing up. 1966–70: controversy, studio years and break-up Controversy "Christianity will go," Lennon said. "It will vanish and shrink. I needn't argue about that; I'm right and I will be proved right. We're more popular than Jesus now; I don't know which will go first, rock 'n' roll or Christianity. Jesus was alright but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It's them twisting it that ruins it for me." The comment went virtually unnoticed in England, but when US teenage fan magazine Datebook printed it five months later—on the eve of the group's August US tour—it sparked a controversy with Christians in the American "Bible Belt" Studio Years & The End The overwhelming consensus
is that the Beatles had created
a popular masterpiece: a rich,
sustained, and overflowing
work of collaborative genius.
Whose bold ambition and
startling originality, dramatically
enlarged the possibilities and raised the expectations of what the experience of listening to popular music on record could be. On the basis of this perception, Sgt. Pepper became the catalyst for an explosion of mass enthusiasm for album-formatted rock that would revolutionize the record business in ways that far outstripped the earlier pop explosions triggered by the Elvis phenomenon of 1956 and the Beatlemania phenomenon of 1963. In January of '68, the Beatles filmed a cameo for the animated movie Yellow Submarine, which featured cartoon versions of the band members and a soundtrack with eleven of their songs, including four unreleased studio recordings which made their debut in the film.
Released in June 1968, it was praised by critics for its music, humor, and innovative visual style. Aretha Franklin Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and pianist. In a recording career that has spanned over half a century, Franklin's repertoire has included gospel, jazz, blues, R&B, pop, rock and funk.
Franklin is known as one of the most important popularizers of the soul music genre and is referred to as the Queen of Soul, a title she was given early in her career. Smokey Robinson & The Miracles - You Really Got A Hold On Me The Miracles were an American rhythm and blues group that was the first successful recording act for Berry Gordy's Motown Records. Formed in 1955 by Smokey Robinson, Warren "Pete" Moore, and Ronnie White, the group started off as The Five Chimes, changing their name to The Matadors two years later. The group then settled on The Miracles after the inclusion of Claudette Robinson in 1958. Otis Ray Redding, Jr. (September 9, 1941 – December 10, 1967) was an American singer and songwriter, record producer, arranger and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in popular music and a major artist in soul music and rhythm and blues. His singing style has been influential among the soul artists of 1960s and helped exemplify the Stax Sound. Otis Redding Marvin Gaye (April 2, 1939 – April 1, 1984), born Marvin Pentz Gay, Jr., was an American singer-songwriter and musician. Gaye helped to shape the sound of Motown Records in the 1960s with a string of hits including "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved By You)" and "I Heard It Through the Grapevine". He later earning the titles "Prince of Motown" and "Prince of Soul". Marvin Gaye Isaac Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes, Jr. (August 20, 1942 – August 10, 2008) was an American songwriter, musician, singer, actor, and voice actor. Hayes was one of the creative influences behind the southern soul music label Stax Records, where he served both as an in-house songwriter and as a record producer, teaming with his partner David Porter during the mid-1960s Wilson Pickett A major figure in the development of American soul music, Pickett recorded over 50 songs which made the US R&B charts, and frequently crossed over to the US Billboard Hot 100. Among his best known hits are "In the Midnight Hour" (which he co-wrote), "Land of 1,000 Dances", "Mustang Sally" The Supremes The Supremes were an American female singing group and the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s. Originally founded as the Primettes in Detroit, Michigan, in 1959, the Supremes were the most commercially successful of Motown's acts and are, to date, America's most successful vocal group with 12 number one singles. The founding members were Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, Diana Ross, and Betty McGlown, all from the Brewster-Douglass public housing project in Detroit. Chicago Blues McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1913? - April 30, 1983).
He stated later in life, that he was born in Rolling Fork, Mississippi in 1915.
Known as Muddy Waters, he was an American blues musician who is considered the "father of modern Chicago blues".
He was a major inspiration for the British blues explosion in the 1960s. In 1940 Muddy moved to Chicago for the first time.
A year later, and then returned to Mississippi.
In the early part of the 40s, he ran a juke joint, complete with gambling, moonshine, and a jukebox. He also performed music there himself.
In the summer of 1941, Alan Lomax went to Stovall, Mississippi, on behalf of the Library of Congress, to record various country blues musicians.
In 1943, Muddy headed back to Chicago with the hope of becoming a full-time professional musician.
In 1946, he recorded for Aristocrat Records, until they changed their label name to Chess Records. Muddy Waters Chester Arthur Burnett (June 10, 1910 – January 10, 1976), known as Howlin' Wolf, was an influential American blues singer, guitarist and harmonica player. He was born in West Point, Mississippi in an area now known as White Station.
With a booming voice and looming physical presence, Burnett is commonly ranked among the leading performers in electric blues
At 6 feet, 3 inches, and close to 300 pounds, he was an imposing presence with one of the loudest and most memorable voices of all the "classic" 1950s Chicago blues singers.
He had a rough-edged, slightly fearsome musical style. Howlin' Wolf John Lee Hooker John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was a highly influential American blues singer-songwriter and guitarist.
He rose to prominence performing his own unique style of what was originally a unique brand of mixing different styles of blues.
He developed a 'talking blues' style that was his trademark.
A good example of early Chicago style blues, his music was metrically free.
John Lee Hooker could be said to embody his own unique genre of the blues, often incorporating the boogie-woogie piano style and a driving rhythm into his blues guitar playing and singing. If you listen closely enough, you can hear
examples from all three of these musicans in
this clip. The back beat from Howlin' Wolf,
the speaking style of John Lee Hooker, and how
you can make a song your own, like Muddy Waters
did, by playing around and having fun. 1957 1970 The double LP commonly, known as the White Album, is called this because of its virtually featureless cover.
During recording sessions for the album, which stretched from late May to mid-October 1968, relations between the Beatles grew openly divisive.
Starr quit for two weeks, and McCartney took over the drum kit for "Back in the U.S.S.R."
Describing the White Album, Lennon said, "Every track is an individual track; there isn't any Beatle music on it. [It's] John and the band, Paul and the band, George and the band.
This is identified the sessions as the start of the band's break-up *Trivia* - The song has a recording of a cocktail party mixed in While the Beatles were working on the Sgt. Pepper's album, they still would release singles to the public. Due to the fact that the songwriting team of Lennon & McCartney was very strong, and the fact that they were under contract. "Penny Lane" was released in February 1967 as one side of a double A-sided single, along with "Strawberry Fields Forever". Strange facts about the song-
Lennon's vocals were automatically double-tracked from the words "Strawberry Fields Forever" through the end of the last verse.
This is how they attempted to do stereo, but ended up giving it a strange echo effect.
There was two separate takes that Lennon wanted to use, so he had them combined.
One track was faster than the other, so they slowed the fast track down to match the slower. This gives the song that strange 'dreamy' sound, Lennon wanted to obtain. Abbey Road, Let It Be, and break-up Although Let It Be was the Beatles' final album release, it was largely recorded before Abbey Road.
Epistin (the Beatle's Manager) said, the project was "not at all a happy recording experience. It was a time when relations between The Beatles were at their lowest".
On August 20th, 1969, marks the last occasion on which all four Beatles were together in the same studio. Lennon announced his departure to the rest of the group, but agreed to withhold a public announcement to avoid undermining sales of the forthcoming album.
McCartney filed suit for the dissolution of the Beatles' contractual partnership on 31 December 1970.
Legal disputes continued long after their break-up, and the dissolution was not formalized until 29 December 1974 Heavy Metal
Proto Punk
Punk Gener Many of the well know bands of the 1970s had their start in the late 1960s (1968-1969).
It wasn't until their sophomore albums, that many of these bands were noticed.
This is also know as the progressive rock movement
The British bands include Pink Floyd & Genesis
American bands include Zappa, and Blood, Sweat & Tears. Pop rock orientate rock orientated bands like Boston, Foreigner, Kansas, Journey and Styx also started to become famous.
The term heavy metal began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity also started in the late 60s and early 70s.
This included : Judas Priest, UFO, Motörhead, Black Sabbath, and Rainbow from Britain
From the US: Kiss, Ted Nugent, and Blue Öyster Cult
Rush from Canada and Scorpions from Germany John R. "Johnny" Cash (February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, actor, and author[2] who was considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century Although he is primarily remembered as a country music icon, his songs and sound spanned other genres including rockabilly and rock and roll—especially early in his career—and blues, folk, and gospel. This crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of induction in the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. For a decent look at his life, watch the movie, "Walk the Line". They did a half way decent job of showing who the 'Man in Black' was. kURT cOBAIN Ray Charles The 1970s created a perfect musical bridge from the rebelliousness of the 1960s and the happy bubblegum songs that are characteristic of the 1980s.
Following the counterculture of the 60s, the 70s created a trend of
relaxing music
dance music.
People had grown tired of the fighting that happened during the previous decade, and many of them sought a refuge in dance clubs and other places to enjoy a good time. Out of this idea emerged the Disco movement.
Of course, there were still the bands and artists that continued to speak of the ills of society, typically characterized by the punk music in the latter part of the decade. Although the rebellious idea had died down shortly following Woodstock in 1969, there were still many people that disagreed with the establishment and the way the country was being run.
Most people, though, were just looking for another way to vent their frustrations, which helped to give rise to the fun that disco music provided.
The 1970's was not a unique decade in terms of creating innovations in musical styles and genres, but it was unique in that it was a musical bridge connecting the hippie lifestyle of the 1960s with the characteristic yuppie lifestyle that was about to occur in the 1980s.
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