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Kingdoms of West Africa

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on 16 May 2014

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Transcript of Kingdoms of West Africa

Trade In The Sahara
Surplus Leads To Trade
Ghana: The Land Of Gold
Influence Of Islam
The Kingdom Of Mali
Mansa Musa Rules Mali
A New Empire In Songhai
Smaller Societies Of West Africa
Trading Gold For Salt
Cities Of Splendor
Salt was a rare commodity in Africa and it was important to human health.

Commodity-
A valuable product

It was highly prized as a trade item.
The Hajj Of Mansa Musa
Extending The Empire
Armies Invade From The North
The Forest Kingdom Of Benin
Walled City-States Of The Hausa
11.2 Kingdoms of West Africa
Some Neolithic people migrated to an area of grasslands that were good for farming between the Senegal and Niger rivers.

Farming villages began to produce a surplus which allowed them to trade with other villages.

Surplus-
an amount that is more than needed, excess
Salt was an important part of people's diet, food preservation, and people even made homes out of blocks of salt.
Salt and gold were the two main things that were traded in ancient Africa.

They even traded one pound of gold, for one pound of salt.
By 800 A.D. the ruler of the Soninke people created the kingdom of Ghana.
-The Kingdom of Benin began to rise in the rainforests.
Muslim merchants brought Islam with them to the Kingdom of Ghana.

The king began to incorporate in the government and military.

Muslims introduced their written language, coinage, and business methods.

Located in the fertile, broad "V" made by the Niger and Senegal rivers.
Two streams of trade met in the marketplaces of Ghana, where the king collected tolls on all goods entering his land.
Capital of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh, which was made up of two separate walled towns.
First town:
-Dominated by the royal palace
-Court noted for its wealth and splendor
-King of Ghana was a godlike figure who administered justice and kept order.
Second Town:
-Muslim merchants lived in luxurious stone buildings
-Merchants helped make Kumbi Saleh a large center of trade.
During Ghana's collapse, Mandinka people were defeated by a rival leader, resulting in the death of their king and almost all of his sons.
The survivor of the sons was Sundiata, who crushed his enemies, won control of the trade routes, and founded the empire of Mali.
Sundiata-

Sickly boy, regarded as too weak to be a threat.
Mansa Musa-

The greatest ruler of the kingdom of Mali, who expanded the borders westward and conquered cities in the North.
He worked to ensure peace and order in his empire
Converted to Islam and based his system of justice on the Qur'an, but promoted religious freedom.
Mansa Musa showed devotion to Islam, and forged diplomatic ties with other Muslim states.
He brought back scholars, architects, and teachers who helped promote Islamic education in Mali.
An Islamic university was built in Timbuktu.
Disputes over succession weakened Mali, resulting in the empire to shrivel.
The wealthy trading city of Gao had become the capital of the emerging West African kingdom of Songhai.
Other societies flourished in West Africa, besides the great kingdoms.
-Fertile northern lands belonged to the Hausa
Farming and trading were the keys to success
Songhai developed at the bend of the Niger river.
Sonni Ali
built the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa.
Askia Muhammad
set up a Muslim dynasty. He set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for farming and the military.
Askia Muhammad made the pilgrimage to Mecca as well.
Disputes over succession led to many changes in leadership.
There was a time of relative peace, but disputes occurred once again, leading to civil wars.
Moroccan control over the region weakened, the glory of Songhai could not be restored.
The forest peoples built farming villages and traded pepper and ivory.
The oba was a political, judicial, and religious leader.
Artisans from a neighboring forest society taught the people of Benin how to cast bronze and brass.
Benin sculptors developed their own unique style, depicting warriors, queen mothers, and the oba.
Conflict and invasion were frequent events, causing the Hausa to build walls around their villages for protection.
Hausa cities expanded into thriving commercial centers where cotton weavers and artisans produced goods for sale
Muslim rulers lead to the Hausa writing system being influenced by the Arabic writing system, and the government being influenced by Islamic law.
Many Hausa rulers were women, including Amina of Zazzu, who dominated many trade routes.
Discussion Questions
1.
How did the kingdoms of West Africa prosper?

2.
What influence did Islam have on the large kingdoms of West Africa?
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