**Golden Ratio And Art**

Golden Ratio in Art

**Music**

Debussy and the Golden Ratio

Claude Debussy was a famous composer who wrote numerous musical compositions in the impressionist style during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Debussy is most well known for his piece, “Clair de Lune;” however, one of his other well-known pieces “Reflets Dans L’Eau” (Reflections in Water) incorporates the golden ratio in its structure.

The sequence of keys is marked out by the intervals 34, 21, 13 and 8, and the main climax sits at the phi position.

Music and Fibonacci

There are 13 notes in the span of any note through its octave.

A scale is composed of 8 notes, of which the 5th and 3rd notes create the basic foundation of all chords, and are based on whole tone which is 2 steps from the root tone, that is the 1st note of the scale.

The masterpiece "Last Supper," contains a golden ratio in several places, appearing in both the ceiling and the position where the people sit.

Mona Lisa's face is a perfect golden rectangle, according to the ratio of the width of her forehead compared to the length from the top of her head to her chin.

In some Greek sculptures the navel (belly button) represents the mean of the golden ratio. The nevel is positioned such that the ratio of the short half to the long half is equal to the ratio of the long half to the whole.

From feet to navel= 1

From feet to head= 1,618

The ratio of the dimensions of Dali's painting Sacrament of the Last Supper is equal to the Golden Ratio.

In Holy Family, Michelangelo uses the pentagram to outline the composition of the three main figures in this highly original circular painting.

• the length and the width of the painting itself

• the rectangle around Mona's face (from the top of the forehead to the base of the chin, and from left cheek to right cheek).

Subdivide this rectangle using the line formed by using her eyes as a horizontal divider to divide the Golden Rectangle.

• the three main areas of the Mona Lisa, the neck to just above the hands, and the neckline on the dress to just below the hands

The Golden Ratio has a great impact on art.

Leonardo Da Vinci, a sculpture, painter, inventor and a mathematician, was the first one who first called Phi the Golden Ratio.

In Bathers at Asnières, Georges-Pierre Seurat used the golden section to position the horizon and subjects in the composition.

Golden Rectangles in The Mona Lisa

Seurat’s painting which is following Circus Sideshow has a large number of the golden rectangle. This painting rely on the principle of the golden ratio.

The people’s who are on the left side of the picture, above the waist per unit (1.618), down 1 unit.

Dali positioned the table exactly at the golden section of the height of his painting. He positioned the two disciples at Christ's side at the golden sections of the width of the composition

In St. Jerome praying in the Wilderness, Leonardo placed the saint’s body within the confines of the Golden Rectangle, centering his head within the upper right hand rectangle and placing the end of the Golden Spiral directly over St. Jerome’s heart.

The Fibonacci series appears in the foundation of aspects of art, beauty and life. Even music has a foundation in the series, as:

Musical instrument design is often based on phi, the golden ratio

Fibonacci and phi are used in the design of violins and even in the design of high quality speaker wire.

In this Statue of Athena, the first Golden Ratio is the length from the front head to the ear opening compared with the length from the forehead to the chin. The second one appears in the ratio of the length from the nostril to the earlobe compare with the length from the nostril to the chin.

The Venus de Milo sculpture was carved by the Greek sculptor Alexandros. The statue adheres, intentionally or not, strictly to the Phi, Golden Ratio or Golden Proportion of 1.6180339887.

Composition in Red, Yellow and Blue, 1926 by Piet Mondrian

Some works in the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, or neoplasticism, exhibit golden ratio proportions. Piet Mondrian used the golden section extensively in his neoplasticist, geometrical paintings, created circa 1918–38. Mondrian sought proportion in his paintings by observation, knowledge and intuition, rather than geometrical or mathematical methods.

The drawing of Raphael's Cruxifiction is an example of the Golden Triangle. The main characters in the painting outlines a golden triangle. A golden triangle is an isoceles triangle whose ratio of longer side to the base is the golden ratio.

We can draw three straight lines into this figure. Then, the image of the feature is included into a triangle. Moreover, if a perpendicular line would be dropped from the apex of the triangle to the base, the triangle would cut the base in Golden Section.

Self-portrait by Rembrandt

**Klaudia, Ada, Magda, Noemi**

**Gimnazjum im. Anny Wazówny,**

Golub-Dobrzyń

Poland

Golub-Dobrzyń

Poland