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Conceptual Physics: Ch 1 - About Science

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D Wylie

on 17 August 2017

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Transcript of Conceptual Physics: Ch 1 - About Science

Conceptual Physics: Chapter 1 - About Science
Mathematics - The Language of Science
when scientific concepts are expressed as numbers they become a universal language that any scientist can understand
Science builds on itself...
Scientific Attitude
Science and Technology
Technology is a double edged sword, we receive both negative and positive consequences of what we create
Short Sum-Up
Science is....
1. Order and relationships
2. Ongoing
3. Testable laws and theories
4. Observational
5. Systematic
Theories
Science, Art, and Religion
Although they sometimes overlap, the three are very different:
science: discovering/recording natural phenomena
art: personal interpretation and creative expression
religion: addresses source, purpose, and meaning of it all
Wise applications of technology can lead to a better world
Experiment!
How big of a role does technology play in our lives?
Wrote down every time we used technology for a day
-phone: 37 times
-computer: 9 times
-car: 5 times
-calculator:2 times
-lights: 30
Physics - "The Basic Science"
Fundamental; motion, forces, energy, matter, heat, sound, light, and the structure of atoms
Relational to other fields of science
Thermodynamics
Chemistry, Biology, Biotechnology
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
STEP 1
State the problem.
Observation.
HOW? WHY?
STEP 2
RESEARCH AND GATHER INFORMATION
Learn about the background of the problem.
What other tests have scientists already performed?

STEP 3
FORM A HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem.
“Educated Guess” - Prediction

STEP 4
TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
Make observations
Build a model
Perform an experiment

STEP 5
ANALYZE THE DATA
Record observations into easy-to-read tables and graphs.
Include all results, even unexpected ones. (NO BIAS)
STEP 6
DRAW A CONCLUSION/EVALUATE HYPOTHESIS
SUPPORTED—REPEAT
NOT SUPPORTED—REPEAT
1600s
Galileo Galilei
Francis Bacon
...trial and error, accidental
discovery...
Percy Spencer (1945) - magnetron, a vacuum tube used to generate microwaves, and noticed that the chocolate bar in his pocket melted
Inquiry, experimentation, humility

Fact: close agreement amongst competent observers
Hypothesis
Scientific Laws or principles
Hypotheses tested repeatedly arriving at the same conclusion
Aristotle (300s BC) - Gravity and mass
believed that there is no motion without a cause
believed Earth was the center of the Universe to which all things were drawn to
ISAAC NEWTON
Good Hypothesis / Poor Hypothesis
When there is less oxygen in the water, rainbow trout suffer more lice.

This hypothesis is good because it is testable, simple, written as a statement, and establishes the participants (trout), variables (oxygen in water, and numbers of lice), and predicts effect (as oxygen levels go down, the numbers of lice go up)


Our universe is surrounded by another, larger universe, with which we can have absolutely no contact.

This statement may or may not be true, but it is not a scientific hypothesis. By its very nature, it is not testable. There are no observations that a scientist can make to tell whether or not the hypothesis is correct. This statement is speculation, not a hypothesis."

Aphid-infected plants that are exposed to ladybugs will have fewer aphids after a week than aphid-infected plants which are left untreated.

This hypothesis gives a clear indication of what is to be tested (the ability of ladybugs to curb an aphid infestation), is a manageable size for a single experiment, mentions the independent variable (ladybugs) and the dependent variable (number of aphids), and predicts the effect (exposure to ladybugs reduces the number of aphids).

Ladybugs are a good natural pesticide for treating aphid infected plants
.


This statement is not 'bite size.' Whether or not something is a 'good natural pesticide' is too vague for a science fair project. There is no clear indication of what will be measured to evaluate the prediction.
Well tested and verified hypotheses
Large body of knowledge in support of the theory
Not fixed - fluid and changing
ATOMIC theory
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