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Adolescent Drug Use

Deanna Brown, Michelle Carnella, Matt Kane, Jillian Columbia, Montana Maltese, Charissa Daye

Deanna Brown

on 15 April 2013

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Transcript of Adolescent Drug Use

Over-the-Counter Drugs (OTC) Cigarettes Alcohol Prescription Drugs Marijuana Why do Adolescents Use OTC's? Adolescent Drug Abuse Deanna Brown
Michelle Carnella
Matt Kane
Jillian Columbia
Montana Maltese
Charissa Daye It is any drug that can be purchased at any supermarket or pharmacy that does not require a prescription.

OTC drugs include active ingredients such as:
-acetaminophen (Tylenol),
-pseudoephedrine (Sudafed and Robotussin)
-NSAID which stands for nonsteroidal anti inflamatory drug (Ibprofrean & Asprin
-dextromethorphan (Dayquil, Robotussin)
-antihistamines (Allegra, Benadryl, Zyrtec)
-and many more. Acetaminophen -OTC drug that helps to relieve mild pain from headaches, muscle aches, menstrual periods, toothaches, and also used to reduce fever

-Adolescents are at risk of taking acetaminophen by overusing it in combination with other drugs such as alcohol. This can cause stomach bleeding, liver damage, or death. Dextromethorphan -OTC drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion, sinus congestion, and sinus pressure. Found in almost every cough medicine.

-This chemical found in cough medicine has an hallucinogenic effect on the brain. Overuse of this drug can cause permanent damage to the brain psychologically.

-Frequent users can also have issues with memory loss as well as always being stuck in a constant “trip” or “high.” -Helps to temporarily relieve pain

-Used to help relieve symptoms associated with being sick

-Easy access to purchasing drugs in stores

-Drugs are already available in the home

-Drugs are cheap

-Easy long lasting effect Addiction According to the National Institute of Drug Addiction,
“Addiction is a brain disease that effects multiple brain circuits involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and inhibitory control over behavior.” Prevention -There are state and federal laws prohibiting the sale of OTC drugs containing specific ingredients found in cough medicines.

-Only take over the counter drugs when necessary.

-Only take the recommended dosage indicated on the package.

-As a parent keep only minimal OTC drugs in the home and in a place not so accessible to children (high cabinent, master bedroom bathroom) -Talk to your children about how even though OTC drugs help when sick that there are dangers involved and children
should be made aware. Treatment Detoxification
Medications are used to bring the brain back to proper functioning, diminish cravings, and prevent relapse
Behavioral Therapies
Multi-dimensional family therapy, Cognitive Behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, motivational incentives
Therapeutic Communities orRehabilitation
Outside support services for both individual and family
Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Alcholics Anonymous (AA), Alanon. -Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including things like cyanide, lead, and at least 60 cancer-causing compounds.

-When you smoke during pregnancy, that toxic brew gets into your bloodstream, your baby's only source of oxygen and nutrients. "Smoking cigarettes is probably the No. 1 cause of adverse outcomes for babies",
says Welch, who's the chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Providence Hospital in Southfield, Michigan. Smoking While Pregnant The most serious complications — including stillbirth, premature delivery, and low birth weight — can be chalked up to the fact that nicotine and carbon monoxide work together to reduce your baby's supply of oxygen.

Nicotine chokes off oxygen by narrowing blood vessels throughout your body, including the ones in the umbilical cord. It's a little like forcing your baby to breathe through a narrow straw. Second Hand Smoke Adults breathe in and out approximately 14 to 18 times a minute, and newborns can breathe as many as 60 times a minute. Babies who are exposed to secondhand smoke after birth have twice the risk for SIDS as babies who aren't exposed.Babies whose mothers smoked before and after birth carry three to four times the risk for SIDS. “The earlier an adolescent starts smoking marijuana, the earlier the potential changes to brain structure and function”
-John Knight, MD, Senior Associate in Medicine and Associate in Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital Boston and Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School. -hippocampus (memory)

-amygdala (emotion and anxiety)

-nucleus accumbens (reward and motivated behavior)

-hypothalamus (appetite) Major Areas of the Brain Affected During Development Marijuana use during adolescence is associated with poorer performance on thinking tasks -Slower psychomotor speed
-Poorer complex attention
-Loss of verbal memory
-Planning ability compromised Effects of Marijuana on IQ with Adolescent Use Onset Meier M.H., Caspi A., Amber A., Harringon H., Houts R., Keefe R.S., McDonald K., Ward A., Poulton R., & Moffitt T.E. (2012) Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to mid-life, Treatments -Cognitive Behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective treatment for adolescent drug users

-Socio-cultural treatments such as self-help groups and intervention (half-way) homes are another helpful treatment for adolescent marijuana abusers

-Contingency management (CM) has proven to be effective How Many Adolescents Use Marijuana?
-Less Than You Think- Alcohol Abuse Trends Binge Drinking www.monitoringthefuture.org/data/05data.html#2005data-drugs. -On average, adolescent drinking begins at 14, and individuals who reported drinking before age 15 were 9x more likely to report alcohol dependence later in life.

-Frequent, adolescent binge drinkers are more likely to engage in risky behavior

-Approx. 5,000 adolescents under 21, die as a result of alcohol abuse and underage drinking Why do adolescents drink? -Developmental Changes
-High Expectations
-Sensitivity or Tolerance to Alcohol
-Personality and Psychiatric Characteristics
-Hereditary Factors
-Environment References http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=persistent%20cannabis%20users%20and%20meier (IQ INFO)
Jebaraj S, Knight J, Harris SK. 2011 Medical marijuana is bad for youth. The Forum. Massachusetts Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 12, No. 4
http://www.mcpap.com/pdf/Cannibis.pdf (PHOTO)University of Cincinnati (2008) Marijuana use takes toll on adolescent brain function, research finds. ScienceDaily
http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/marijuana (CHART)
http://www.projectknow.com/research/marijuana/ (PHOTO)
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm Substance Abuse The DSM-IV defines substance abuse as, "A maladaptive patern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress." Health Risks -Drinking before or during the critical period of puberty, may upset the balance of hormones in a developing body necessary for the development of organs, muscles, and bones

-Elevated liver enzymes that indicate liver damage, especially in overweight or obese teens.

-Although difficult to detect, it is believed that there are significant effects on long-term thinking and memory skills Intervention and Prevention -Environmental Approaches Include:
-Raising the Price of Alcohol
-Increasing the Drinking Age
-Zero-Tolerance Laws
-Stepping up Law Enforcement -Individual Approaches Include:
-School-Based Prevention Programs
-Family-Based Prevention Programs
-Adolescent Treatment Interventions “According to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, teens who abuse prescription drugs are twice as likely to use alcohol, five times more likely to use marijuana, and twelve to twenty times more likely to use illegal street drugs such as heroin, Ecstasy and cocaine than teens who do not abuse prescription drugs.” In 2007: In 2011: Why? Availability: Prescription drugs are easier to obtain than illegal drugs

Education: Most teens don't fully understand the risks of taking a medication not prescribed to them and the dangers of mixing prescription drugs with alcohol and other illegal drugs

Pressure: Teens feel pressured to fit in with their friends

Pleasure: They are looking for psychological or physical pleasure Pain Relievers “Opioids work by mimicking the body’s natural pain-relieving chemicals, attaching to receptors in the brain to block the perception of pain (NCADD).” -Vicodin
-Codeine Common Side Effects:
1) Abdominal Bloating
2) Dizziness
3) Muscle Pain
4) Sleeplessness “Depressants, opioids and antidepressants are responsible for more overdose deaths (45%) than cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and amphetamines (39%) combined (Drug Free World).” Stimulants “Stimulants enhance the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, increase blood pressure and heart rate, constrict blood vessels, and open up the pathways of the respiratory system (NCADD).” -Ritalin
-Adderall Common Side Effects:
1) Loss of Appetite
2) Trouble Sleeping
3) Stomach Pains
4) Headaches Tranquilizers & Sedatives “Central nervous system depressants slow normal brain function to produce a drowsy or calming effect (NCADD).” -Xanax
-Vallium Common Side Effects:
1) Dizziness
2) Confusion
3) Decreased Heart Rate
4) Slurred Speech -Every day, 2,700 teenagers try a prescription medicine to get high for the first time.

-Nearly 1 in 5 teens (19 percent or 4.5 million) report abusing prescription medications to get high.

-One in 3 teens report having a close friend who abuses prescription pain medicine to get high.
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