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Hallyu and Korean Drama

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Eunji Kong

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Hallyu and Korean Drama

Popularity and Effects
Outside of Korea Hanna Cho Background/History Drama Characteristics Advantages/Disadvantages
of Hallyu Readings Business of Drama Eunji Kong Rebecca Yang Cornelia Heyny Film, Television Dramas, and Social Issues Alicia Durant Julia Schmid Hallyu
Drama Alicia Durant
Ayaka Lee
Cornelia Heyny
Eunji Kong Hanna Cho
Julia Goldschmid
Liya Palmer
Rebecca Yang Asia Europe North America South America Japan China Thailand Philippines Romantic Drama=

Family Drama=

Business Drama=

Medical Drama=

Military Drama=

Historical Drama= Themes Romance

Romance at Home

Romance at Company

Romance at Hospital

Romance at War zones
Romance wearing Hanbok ROMANCE CAREER FAMILY HISTORY FANTASY Switching Bodies Time Traveling Non-Human Creature/God Based on
Historical Facts Not Historically True EVIL
RELATIONSHIPS Stairway to Heaven Analysis of Typical Drama expression for a pop cultural phenomenon

enormous spread and commercial success

movies, television dramas, music

East- and Southeast- Asia and partly other regions all over the world
Hallyu magazines
Hallyu trips
http://www.visitkorea.or.kr/ena/CU/CU_EN_8_5_1_68.jsp CCTV 1: Chinese TV-channel
•began to broadcast the Korean series "What is love?"
•This series reached Viewer ratings of 43 percent and was repeated from different other TV-channels in China. Hallyu Hanguoliuxing •China, late 1990s: expression appeared the first time
•can be translated as "cultural flow from Korea" or just "Korean wave. •24 June 2001: reported about the totally unexpected success of Movies, TV shows and pop music from Korea
•started using the term Hallyu
•therefore described the phenomenon, which had a huge turnover in countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan and gradually in whole East Asia. Achu-Chgan: Chinese magazine Korean pop groups intensified
the boom •First success outside of Korea in Taiwan

•1980s: Taiwan already imported Korean TV-programs

•Much cheaper than Japanese TV-programs

•Low audience rating

•2000: very fast increasing popularity of Korean series bought 2300 hours of Korean TV dramas (Spring 2001 - Summer 2003)

March 2004: 28 Korean dramas in a single week, by Taiwanese TV broadcasters April 2004:

In Japan the state run television broadcasting NHK began to send 20 episodes of "Winter Sonata" in their first program. shown in 359 Japanese cinemas
In just two months they reached a viewer record of 800,000.
neighbor countries, and also more and more in the U.S. and in Europe What is Love? Korean Wave superseded Japanese Wave Winter Sonata Korean Movies:
JSA and
Swiri Across the world
there is a total of
182 officially recognized fan clubs with 3.3 million members in 20 different countries. This is merely a number of officially recognized people. The actual number of people who practice the fanaticism of Hanryu is said to be greater. (According to the Korean Culture and Information Service-KOCIS, 2011) •Japan and Korea relations-colonialism
•“Winter Sonanta” (2003): Bae Yong-Jun, “Yon-Sama” & Choi Ji-Woo “Jiwoo-hime”
•Introduction of the drama in Japanese and Taiwanese textbooks Popularity of Korean dramas accounted for more than all other foreign programs combined on all Chinese government TV networks in 2006. Through Dae Jang Geum, Korean food started gaining popularity. An agreement of Cultural Cooperation between Thailand and Korea was signed in August 2004 as the Thai media corporations thought that the film trade between the two nations was highly lopsided. Filipinos can relate to many stories of the Korean dramas. In 2010, Maxim Paquet formed a fan club called “Korean Connection”. The club arranges various events such as festivals, concerts. The club is run by a 50-member committee with over 6,000 regular members. In 2011, the club held a flash mob in front of the Louvre Museum in requesting of one more K-pop concert in Paris to SM Entertainment for those who weren’t able to get tickets the first time. (Members of the Korean Connection, the largest Korean culture fan club in Europe, making gimbap in Korea on a tour.) Number of flash mobs of “Gangnam Style”
Dramafever: a website that provides free Korean dramas in the U.S. Currently there are over 3 million monthly viewers, 85% of whom are not Asian.
Remakes of movies: “My Sassy Girl”
Korean actors in Hollywood production: Lee Byung Hun from G.I. Joe, Rain from Ninja Assassin •Coffee Prince, Princess Hours
•Chile, Peru, Paraguay
•Cuba- In a country where South Korea rarely has diplomatic relations with, they are currently airing Queen of Housewives four times a week.
•In Paraguay, My Fair Lady (2009) received the second highest rating among all the Red Guarani’s programs in 2012. Tourism

Increase in exports
Cultural exports
Economic soft power

Promotion of Korean brands
Government driven promotion of brands with Hallyu wave Economic Advantages Disadvantages Diplomatic
Soft power
President Hu Jin-tao likes Korean dramas
Lee Young-ae invited to state dinner
Obama mentioned Gangnam style at bilateral meeting
Psy performed at White House Political Awareness
Increase in interest
Transition of interest from Hallyu to Korea as a nation Cultural Proliferation Narrow-minded view of Korea
Mindset that Korea consists only of Hallyu

Ignorance of the broader culture Cultural Bias Increase in Anti-Korean sentiment
Ex. Sousuke Takaoka dropped from agency after anti-Korean tweets
Boycott FujiTV Anti-Korean Government manipulation of Hallyu mocked

Belittlement of Korean politics Political Criticism Sentiment http://www.dramacrazy.net/korean-drama/the-king-of-dramas-episode-1/ INTRODUCTION "Korean dramas and celebrity
culture convey a somewhat fairy
tale-like image of Korea, where
everyone is tall and handsome,"
said Raphael (Source: koreabang.com). "Disillusioned tourists come in their masses to live the Korean Dream, but find themselves confronted with a reality that is not too dissimilar to their own." play until 3:06 “THE DRAMA PRODUCTION SYSTEM” +Quick-reflex production
+Story-line has to be extremely flexible
+About performance Fees +Korean dramas are shot and broadcasted almost always at the same time
+Improvement of television program production environment is needed THE CULTURE OF KOREAN ENTERTAINMENT + Poor working conditions--> accidents
-for example) Ha Ji Won

+ Sexual Abuse of Trainees and Actresses by influential figures --> even led to suicide of the actresses in some cases:
"To work in (the entertainment) industry, you should know how the world and men are.” DARK SIDE OF K-DRAMAS "A law should be enacted to strictly set qualifications for entertainment businesses and an association of entertainers is needed to provide counseling, mentoring and education of human rights."
+ The case of a cruel audience or the audience as the culprit

+ Solution: Actor’s Union
Depicts how lax the punishment for under aged perpetrators of sexual assault can be, as well as a lack of protection for victims. Don’t Cry Mommy
(2012) About the Gwangju Massacre
Had trouble getting funding due to most companies wanting to avoid investing in a politically sensitive movie, particularly since it was to be released a few weeks prior to the presidential elections.
A crowdfunding project (such as Kickstarter) gave the movie the funding it needed to get going and attract other investors.
Most other movies about this topic focus on the suffering of the victims, this one shows them retaliating against those deemed responsible. 26 Years (2012) North versus South spy movie
“It’s the system that makes us willing to kill and to die for North Korean leaders.”
North Koreans tend to be portrayed negatively, with excessively thick accents and violent actions.
Gives a more sympathetic portrayal of North Koreans.
The last director to attempt this (Lee Manhee) was imprisoned in 1967. Swiri (1999) Delineates the widespread problem of bullying in schools
Shows how teachers have lost authority in the classroom, physical and verbal bullying by students to their classmates
A recent suicide of a 15 year old boy due to incessant bullying has instigated President Park to search for a solution to the bullying problem.
The first episode of School 2013 was met with comments about how shocking the bullying was, as well as how it served as an accurate depiction of today’s schools.
Many officials and researchers blame the intense competition between students as the cause. Missing You (2012)
School 2013 (2012 - 2013) Based on the true stories of several deaf students who were sexually abused by the teachers and administrators at their school.
Sparked enough public outrage that the case against the perpetrators was reopened, the school was shut down for a period of time, and the Dogani Bill was passed within a month of the film’s release.
At least 8 students, ages ranging from 7 to 18, were repeatedly assaulted over a period of five years, yet prior to the movie, most of the attackers received little to no punishment. Many even continued to work at the school.
The film also discusses corruption in the justice system, which enabled minimal punishments for the assailants. The Crucible/
Silenced (2011) Readings P.1 Liya Palmer Readings P.2 Ayaka Lee The latest news about Lee Young-Ae
Fans use the cyberspace as global village
Common Love of Lee Young-Ae
The fans take a role of representative of the nation
-Eg: The issue of HK reporters The major topic discussed in the cyberspace Originated from Korea
Similar to fan sites of the actors
Story of Daejanggeum < The actress, Lee Young-Ae
More freedom and autonomy in terms of less rule existent
Enhances the global solidarity which can break national and cultural boundaries Transnational governance in Daejanggeum’s cyberfandom The founder = ‘Emperor’
A number of departments:

Police department
Avoid plagiarism
Controls department
Penalty system
Public appeals office
‘public court’ where penalized members have a chance to appeal their grievance Systems on the cyberfandom in HK Technology
Reflections of life/ Reflexivity
Criticism The common features of the discussion groups on the cyberspace Produced and founded the fan sites in 2005.
The membership has increased to about 3500 members.
Transnational members
Highly structured membership
Hierarchized and well-organized in a number of ranks
Copycats of the characters from Daejanggeum Fans of <Daejanggeum>
in Hong Kong The transnational virtual community is more likely being hierarchized based on:
Fandom level and access
Technological expertise The paradox of ‘mythical’ equality - Equal space where individuals can share the freedom of identity fluidity
- Anonymity
- Mainly attracted to younger generation
- Build a virtual human relationship (Netizens) Virtualizing the ‘Korean Wave’
The Politics of (Transnational) Cyberfandom in
Daejangguem American science fiction started since 1966
Fan activities such as Fanzines

Fan cyberspace becomes a major ‘performance space’ The case of Star Trek •In the 1960’s through 1980’s popular and youth culture were not widely accepted by the government because of it’s foreignness and moral decay

•Now popular culture is becoming the representative culture of a modernized Korea and the government is promoting Hallyu to profit the economy History of Pop Culture •The term “Korean Wave” was coined by Chinese mass media in 2001

•Dramas and K-pop were produced mainly for Korean audiences until the late 1990’s

•Limited foreign fan base and appeal to foreign countries

•The sudden rise of Hallyu made some think it was just a fad, while others capitalized on it Emergence of Hallyu •2004 marked an important year in profits from Hallyu : Winter Sonata (Yonsama phenomenon)

•As of 2004, exports of Korean TV programs earned $71.5 million (Ministry of Culture and Tourism)

•The national tourism income had a turn around for the first time in six years thanks to Hallyu Profits of Hallyu Success of dramas/music are due to:
Attractive celebrities
Narratives revolving around dramatic family relationships/love interests
Common elements: Confucius values
High production value
Visually appealing

Representative of Korean culture: cultural nationalism Mainstream Views South Korean popular cultural products are hybrid
K-pop style originates from American or Japanese pop
Traditional Korean culture and collective popular sentiments are rarely present in Hallyu
Hallyu products are a mixture of western culture and portray cosmopolitan lifestyles
Critics say Hallyu is: “a regional variant of global popculture” , “nothing uniquely Korean about it” Minor Views What is cyberspace? DEATH DEATH Tha k
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