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Transcript of Chapter 10
1. Philosophy of Capitalism, where one person owns the means of production and pays other people to do the work so he can sell the product emerges
2. Communism emerges soon after, based on the workers seizing the means of production and rising up against the higher class
3. Luddites, or former workers put out of business due to new machinery revolted against the newfangled devices and destroyed them
4. Capitalism took hold in the relatively free US, where class movement was much more able, but communism took hold in Russia, where revolt was evident to take place sometime
5. Labor unions formed, gaining the workers rights and helping protect them from mistreatment
6. Middle class grew and Social mobility became more fluid due to people earning more money
7. Social Darwinism enforced that since Europe (And America) was out on top, they were the best of all humanity
8. this was reinforced by the "White Mans' Burden" the idea that because we were the best, we should go out to the rest of the world make others like us, even is they didn't want to be
1. New innovations in Agriculture lead to more population and more time for invention, due to a growing middle class.
2. This also combined with innovations on the cloth-making process, building upon the already-there domestic system to make a system where the work is done in hydraulic mills
3. This also was helped by the Steam engine to move away from rivers, also helping in transportation
4. Other huge inventions helped the system move to the factories
5. These, systems of interchangeable parts and assembly lines gave the work grueling, menial and demeaning labor
7. New philosophies formed, more on that later
8. Also meant that colonization was needed for the raw materials for these luxury products
5. Also came after Napoleonic Wars, started by Priest Miguel Hidalgo
6. he was shot and killed soon after the revolt began
7. Jose Morelos also staged a more successful revolt, but the land-owning class didn't like it and turned against him.
8. wasn't until landowners agreed and revolt actually succeeded, culminating in Treaty of Cordoba, forcing Spain to recognize their independence
1. Peasants unhappy due to Taxes, rebel forming National Assembly
2.They kept the monarch, so people Rebelled again, forming the Convention under the Jaccobins
3. Public Guillotine executions were frequent, Committee of Public safety destroyed all dissidents
4. Young general Napoleon Bonaparte took power, declaring France an empire
5. Made the Napoleonic Codes, a common code of laws still used in France today
6. Good at invading countries, but tried and failed to invade Russia
7. Exiled, but came back and defeated at Waterloo
8. Exiled for the last time and countries decided on a Balance of Power at Congress of Vienna
1. Americans were taxed heavily after French and Indian War
2.Revenue Act and Stamp Acts tax them even further
3. People annoyed, revolt against the crown
4. People initially not excited about revolution
5. Common Sense pamphlet gets them revved up though
6. soon after, Declaration of independence issued
7. Americans lost, then won with french help.
8. Soon after, war was over and Americans had a Constitution
5. Spain became a puppet of Napoleon, colonies in chaos
6. Governor and general Simon Bolivar took the rebel power, started the revolt
7. Freed not only Colombia. but also Argentina and Chile
8. Tries to create a USA-like nation, but states weren't unified enough
1. Japanese originally highly isolated and Ethnocentric
2. Matthew Perry Kicks Japan's Door Open, opening it for trade and forcing it to sign concessions over to foreign powers.
3. Japan had an organized revolt with samurai, new gov Under the Meiji Restoration
4. ushered in an era of fast paced industrialization where the country learned from western powers.
5. This self- inflicted modernization allowed for japan to keep it's own culture, and also to develop whole new culture.
6. now very powerful, it was able to push back the westerners and reduce their footing in the region
7. Trade still existed, but now they were trading equally with westerners
8. power also allowed them to go out and conquer parts of china and Indonesia for themselves.
5. chinese gov. does not want people to buy opium, but Britain wins Opium war and gets to keep selling it there, along with increased trade between countries
6. more opium fights, out of it Britain gets to colonize Hong Kong
7. Many failed rebellions weaken the government, allow other countries to open more spheres of influence there
8. Boxer Rebellion failed, China forced to sign laws toat lessened it's cultural heritage and pay for damages, government topples soon after.
The African Scramble
1. Africa was valuable for slaves, but as enlightenment ideas took hold, the slave trade started to stop
2. Though, as it stopped, Europeans began to colonize it for economical and military reasons
3. Dutch Boer colony in south africas set up as a Trade port, they found Diamond there and Got conquered by the English Soon after. Africans got none of the mine resources
4. Ottomans and French owned parts of Egypt, but Mohammad Ali was able to push them out, they still Remained under Ottoman Control
5. His Grandson, Abbas I worked with French to build Suez Canal, a canal between Mediterranean and Red Seas, Though English bought them out of the deal, gaining the Canal and Egypt as a protectorate state, France move it's eyes to Northwest Africa (Nigeria)
6. Otto von Bismark set up Berlin conference to figure out how lands were divided up within Africa, particularly the Congo, All major powers got pieces of Africa
7. While the European Modernized and Westernized Africa, they also suppressed it's Culture and ruled directly in most colonies (English were Exception)
8. Divided by European-decided boundaries, not naturally set up tribal boundaries, which split up some tribes and push other rival tribes into one group, this caused conflict, and worked towards some european advantages
Nationalist Movements in Italy
5. Germany was set up into small territories with two strong major governments, Prussia and Austria
6. Prussia, embracing the Industrial Revolution gained a new king: King William I, and he set up superstar Prime Minister, Otto von Bismark, who started strengthening the Countries military
7. To unify the region, he had to defeat Austria, which he did in seven short weeks, after making sure no other country would fight on Austria's behalf of course
8. HE then won a series of wars against the french, fully unifying Germany under a single state, and also was soon after kicked out by William's son, William II
Major World Developments
1. Russian people struggled under Absolute Power of Romanov Czars, serfs were basically slaves
2. Alexander II "abolished" serfdom, but made serfs go into a sharecropper-like system
3. Enlightenment ideas and Art grew in 1800s, sparking a golden age untill Alex was assassinated by a Group known as the People's Will
4. Alexander III started Russification, forced all Russians to learn the same language and conform to same social norms, killed anyone that didn't
5. Ottoman Empire was starting to fall, Egypt, Arabia and Greece broke off. Great Britain and France help b/c they don't want Russia to invade it Ottomans become too weak
6. America Shut Europe out of Latin American Affairs under Monroe Doctrine
7. Britain backed US, just so that Spain wouldn't reassert themselves within the region
8. Europeans still didn't want to feel left out, so they economically intermingled within the region, and America set up revolutions in panama to build american-controlled Panama Canal
1. First Successful Slave Revolt in Latin America
2. 90% of Haiti's population were slaves
3. Toussiant L'Ouverture a former slave led the Revolt
4. Revolt was successful, but Toussaint was taken by French and imprisoned
Gran Colombian Revolution
1. Portuguese Royals fled to Brazil when Napoleon Invaded
2. Their son, Pedro stayed there and made it it's own nation
3. Pedro II reformed the country and abolished Slavery
4. this caused a Revolt, leading to the formation of a republic
1. Mughal Empire failing, due to Ethnic, religious and political tensions
2. British East India Company takes power and ridded the subcontinent of french
3. Sepoy Rebel due to pig-fat greased rifles, rebellion crushed easily
4. India becomes it's own colony directly under queen, it become the Jewel of the British Empire
Nationalist Movements in Germany
1. Italy was mostly under small, foreign controlled kingdoms. Only Sardinia was controlled by actual italians
2. Victor Emmanuel and Count Camillo Cavour started nationalist movement, and played to the european conflicts to gain more territories in the regions
3. Giuseppe Garibaldi also helped, and gained a huge army and nearly unified all of Italy
4. Received rest of territories when French and Austrian forces withdrew, but area was still a little shaky and wanted some more land, so it began to globally assert itself in the colony-Making Business
1. Why did America Originally start it's Revolution?
2. Who helped out the Americans in their Revolution?
3. Under what rule in France were public executions present?
4. Who Created the First French Empire?
5. What was the first successful slave revolt in Latin America?
6. Where did Simon Bolivar unify and conquer?
7. How was the Brazilian Revolution Different?
8. What did the Treaty of Cordoba Do?
9. What new innovation lead to a growing middle class?
10. What did interchangeable parts and the assembly line do?
11. What was capitalism?
12. What was Marxism/Early Communism?
13. What was the Sepoy Rebellion?
14. How tot England gain Hong Kong?
15. How was Industrialization in Japan Different?
16. What congress divided up Africa for imperial powers?
17. Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
18. Who as Otto Von Bismark?
19. Who assassinated Alexander II?
20. How did the US gain the Panamanian Canal?