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Transcript of Holocaust
Auschwitz was liberated 6 months later, in January of 1945.
A Little Background
Two sections- East and West
10+ crammed into apartments
Most either left or orphaned
with no food, they perished
smuggling from the outside
If caught, executed.
Up to 20% of all children dead from labor
Prejudiced and Immoral
“The hunger was so great that one searched in trashcans for whatever was edible, although this was prohibited.”
"The Final Solution"
Nazis begin to move towards hard labor camps
Evacuate the ghettos.
Aftermath of the Ghettos
Some Jews stayed behind.
1944- Warsaw Uprising
Eventually becomes a warzone as Soviet forces close in
"I remember the fear, of never feeling safe. You had to hide constantly. And the hunger -- I would sit in our apartment and look out the window, and I would see the Polish children across the street bringing milk back home,It was like watching people in a storybook -- we had no food, no milk..."
-Nelly Cesana: Survivor of the Holocaust/ Warsaw Ghetto
Treated as Cattle
Packed 100+ people into a small car
"People were screaming and there were many cries for help. Some of the older and weaker people began to die. Some people began to take off their clothes to get relief from the unbearable heat...I felt that I couldn’t bear the torture any longer."
On July 23, 1944, Soviet Troops found the Majdanek camp in Poland, the first of many.
Living Conditions in the Camp
Labor in the Camps
-They were forced to work
many hours doing extreme labor.
-Many passed out or died from exhaustion and starvation while working.
-There were people everywhere. There were times when the only way someone could sleep was on their side squashed against someone else
-The jews were fed three meals a day if they were lucky. These meals included only the bare necessities they needed to starve. Jews would be starved, but still forced to do work around the camp until they were too sick to move or dead.
N. destruction or slaughter on a mass scale
attempted genocide of Jews
Time period when Hitler was the Chancellor of Germany
After its defeat in World War I, Germany was humiliated by the Versailles Treaty (by Allies)
reduced its prewar territory
drastically reduced its armed forces
demanded the recognition of its guilt for the war ( really caused by assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria)
pay reparations to the Allied powers
On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party, was named chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg
Founded in 1919 as the German Workers’ Party
led by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
ruled Germany through totalitarian means
group promoted German pride and anti-Semitism
A major tool of the Nazis' propaganda assault was the weekly Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker)
"The Jews are our misfortune!" Der Stürmer
featured cartoons of Jews in which they were caricatured as hooked-nosed and apelike
consolidate their power into a dictatorship
March 23, the Enabling Act
established Hitler as the dictator
by the end of 1934 Hitler was in absolute control of Germany
However, for many, it was far too late.
"After a few days some people could not take it anymore, and they fell down in the road. If they could not get up, they were shot where they lay. After work we had to carry the bodies back. If 1,000 went out to work, a 1,000 had to come back."
Only 6 execution camps were established.
First, being, Chelmno
Majority of the executions were done by putting people in gas chambers.
After executing their victims, the Nazis would loot their corpse.
After looting their corpse, they would throw their bodies in fire pits or leave them in piles or rows.
“If we bear all this suffering and if there are still Jews left, when it is over, then Jews, instead of being doomed, will be held up as an example.” -Anne Frank
Sometimes they used gas trucks to execute people.
The majority had been sent on "death marches", illustrated in Ellie Wiesel's
Inside the cap were more than 800,000 womens' outfits, and more than 14,000 pounds of human hair.
Among the survivors, epidemics of typhus, dysentery, and tuberculosis were rampant. This was in addition to the malnutrition and sheer psychological damage victims had to endure.