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DIGITAL CULTURES 3: SOCIAL
Transcript of DIGITAL CULTURES 3: SOCIAL
1. ANTI-SOCIAL MEDIA
2. SOCIAL MEDIA AND PRIVACY
3. SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE FRACTURING OF IDENTITY
ACTIVITY: DIGITAL FOOTPRINTS
Cyberbullying and Online Hate
2. SOCIAL MEDIA AND PRIVACY
Are digital media (anti)social?
‘an aggressive act or behavior that is carried out using electronic means by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself’ (Smith et al., 2008
‘Being a prick on the internet because you can’ (The Urban Dictionary)
Why does anti-social behavior take place online?
Complex and not easily understood.
1. Lack of social context
3. Intentional behaviour
'This Sucks. Go Die.'
examples of trolling in the news
'So Facebook trolls... laugh at death. They laugh at the body, they laugh at its destruction. They force their victims to confront precisely those things that motivate the popularity of memorial pages — fear of helplessness, fear of losing a loved one, fear of human parts. Thus RIP trolls post pictures of car crashes onto car crash victims’ pages. They post pictures of dead kids onto dead kids’ pages... PhotoShopped pictures of babies in meat grinders, and images of anally impaled corpses.' (Whitney Phillips, 2011)
Who does it?
under 25, focus on USA, male.
Trolling 'is an absolute sausagefest.' (Whitney Phillips, 2011)
EU: responsibility for Protection of Personal Data
Protecting your personal data - a fundamental right!
The free flow of personal data - a common good!
[European Commission website]
1. Process is to be fair and lawful, with consent of the data subject as the primary means of establishing that processing meets these conditions
2. Processing is only to be undertaken for known and specified purposes
3. No more personal data is to be gathered than necessary and relevant to these purposes
4. Data is to be kept accurately and if necessary updated
5. Data is not to be held longer than necessary to fulfil these purposes
6. Data is to be held securely
7. Rights of data subjects (eg to access and correct their data and prevent its use for direct marketing) are to be respected
8. Data is not to be exported without consent to countries outside the EU where privacy protection is not ‘adequate’
As of 2014... The Right to Be Forgotten
Case study: Oxford students
Who was at fault?
‘Students who didn’t take appropriate security measures using existing tools?
Oxford for snooping on a ‘private place’?
Facebook because it did not provide the right defaults for a ‘reasonable expectation of privacy’?’
‘Traditional ideas about identity have been tied to a notion of authenticity that virtual experiences actively subvert. When each player can create many characters in many games, the self is not only decentred but multiplied without limit.’ [Sherry Turkle, 1995, Life on the Screen]
‘With so many different communities now open to us on the web, we can begin to simply pick and choose which identities we want to adopt and which ones we want to reject, allowing an individual to decide how they define themselves rather than simply having to stick to the narrow and limited number of choices’ [Glen Creeber, 2009]
Why think about our digital footprint?
Schneier's taxonomy of data (2009)
I'm struggling to stay in this world, because everything just touches me so deeply. I'm not doing this for attention. I'm doing this to be an inspiration and to show that I can be strong. I did things to myself to make pain go away, because I'd rather hurt myself then someone else...please don't hate... I hope I can show you guys that everyone has a story, and everyones future will be bright one day, you just gotta pull through. I'm still here aren't I ?
- AmandaTodd (2012)
‘‘displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language” (Moor, 2007).
- Has 'angry won the Internet'? [see essay question]
- Is the law too draconian? Does it stifle freedom of speech?
- Is the hysteria over trolling a classic moral panic?
Do we need to worry more about our privacy online?
Are you concerned about your image being used for endorsements of products?
Also... virtual mobbing
6. Trickery... and now doxxing
Focus on... trolling
What does the law say?
"I have been charged by the proctors for breaching rules and being 'disorderly', on the basis of photographic evidence from Facebook... Somehow the proctors have accessed my photos on Facebook and cited them as evidence of my misconduct, and I am being summoned to a disciplinary hearing."
OUSU president, Martin McCluskey, said. "It may not be clear that the proctors' actions breach the terms and conditions of the site, but they almost certainly breach the ethos of the site as a community for connecting friends,"
Are there particular companies/sites which have significantly more access to your identity online than others?
Is it ok for employers to search for information about employees on SNS and to use that information (in terms of recruitment/promotions etc)?
If older people don’t take steps to protect their privacy online, is it right to expect younger people to?
Is it right to take information given in one context for use in another context without the individual’s consent?
Is personalised advertising an opportunity or a symptom of a wider problem with privacy online?
How do YOU feel about (mostly anonymous) information about you being ‘traded’ online?
Digital literacy [from Wikipedia]
Digital and media literacy is seen as a constellation of life skills that are necessary for full participation in our media-saturated, information-rich society. According to Renee Hobbs, author of the white paper, Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action, these include the ability to do the following:
ACCESS. Make responsible choices and access information by locating and sharing materials and comprehending information and ideas
ANALYZE. Analyze messages in a variety of forms by identifying the author, purpose and point of view, and evaluating the quality and credibility of the content
CREATE. Create content in a variety of forms, making use of language, images, sound, and new digital tools and technologies
REFLECT. Reflect on one’s own conduct and communication behavior by applying social responsibility and ethical principles
ACT. Take social action by working individually and collaboratively to share knowledge and solve problems in the family, workplace and community, and by participating as a member of a community
Digital and media literacy competencies, which constitute core competencies of citizenship in the digital age, have enormous practical value.