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Repressed Memories

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Gena Zapata

on 17 April 2013

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Transcript of Repressed Memories

No Side How are Memories Formed? Memory Distortion Refers to a memory report that differs from what actually occurred. Several techniques have been shown to distort memory such as misinformation, suggestion, subliminal repetition and imagination inflation. Questionable Theory Yes Side Are Repressed Memories Real? Sarah Mayhew, Kathia Sandoval, Gena Zapata When people are presented with information to be remembered, the source of that information is not usually tagged in memory. Instead, mental events are attributed to particular sources on the basis of their characteristics.

False through memory distortion arise from source monitor errors.
Source-Monitoring Framework Techniques That Distort Memory Individuals can form memories for events that never happened simply by having the events suggested to them.
 Stack, Okado & Loftus (2010) findings showed how many participants incorporated elements from the misleading information into their memory for the original source material Misinformation Effect Individuals who imagine events having happened to them can go on to form memories of having actually participated in the event.
Dinges & Orne (2010) examined investigative methods used on a 4-year old girl to solve a homicide which resulted in creation of false memories through imagination inflation.
Imagination Inflation
Eyewitness Identification
A repressed memory is the memory of a traumatic event unconsciously retained in the mind, where it is said to adversely affect conscious thought, desire, and action.
What are Repressed
When an individual recognizes events and stores them into short and long term memory.

Encoding Process Retrieval Process Explicit Memory Implicit Memory When an individual attempts to remember events. Information that requires a conscious attempt to remember Information that is remembered unconsciously (tying your shoes, swimming)
According to a study by Michael Anderson directed forgetting refers to impaired memory arising from an instruction to forget unwanted material.

Investigated the neural basis of voluntary memory suppression using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Directed Forgetting Defense Mechanisms Id, Ego and Superego- Sigmund Freud
Dissociation Identity Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia
Source Attribution Errors
Occurs when the people or institutions on which a person depends for survival significantly violate that person’s trust or wellbeing- US Vs. Chatman Case 2008

-A study conducted on Holocaust survivors showed higher levels of dissociation in those which experienced higher levels of trauma.
-Duggal and Stroufes case study.
-Professor Ross Cheits Recovered Memory Project.
Case Studies Betrayal Trauma Theory Consequences of
False Memories Accusations
Familial and emotional distress But how can false memories be so easily created? The implantation of false memories can occur through techniques such as dream interpretation, guided imagery, and hypnosis in hopes of providing patients with an explanation to their issues, even if it’s an artificial one. Techniques That Assist False Memories Memory Implantation http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/31649-conspiracy-test-aliens-and-false-memories-video.htm Lost-in-the-mall scenario conducted by Elizabeth Loftus (1995) Sexual abuse allegations Hypnosis Hypnosis is an artificially created state of consciousness that is characterized by an intense absorption with internal experience and a voluntary suspension of normal awareness of outside stimuli. It involves a high level of suggestibility. In this dissociated state of focused awareness, it is possible to influence voluntary and involuntary behavior through suggestion.

Example: Case of Lisa Naseff & Castlewood Treatment Center of St. Louis Missouri
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