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Chapter 33 Section 2: Communists Take Power in China, Chapter 35 Section 5: Reform and Reaction

Sivan Perets

on 29 May 2015

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Transcript of China

Communists vs. Nationalists

Starting before World War 2 and breaking out into a civil war
Leader: Mao Zedong (MOW dzuh-dahng)
Support: Soviet Union
Public Loyalty: Strong
Military: Experienced from WWII and motivated

Leader: Jiang Jieshi (jee-ahng jee-shee)
Support: United States
Public Loyalty: Weak
Military: Unmotivated
and Ineffective

The Two Chinas
Nationalist China
People's Republic of China
Civil War
The protest in Tiananmen
Deng's new plan caused many problems, there was a wider gap between the rich and the poor, and people wanted democracy and freedom. Lead to a stike to gather workers and such students to demand greater democracy. This demonstation was crushed by chinese military with great loss of life.
Mao's Five Year Plan
Modern Day China
Nationalists started at an advantage.
Economy begins to crash in China
Large cities are given up to the communists.

When Mao took control of China, it staggered behind the main world powers. To improve the industrial/economical status of China, he instituted the first five year plan.
This proved to be extremely effective, boosting the output of cement, coal, electricity, and steel.
1949: Communists win
1953 - 57
After the war
The Great Leap Foward
War between the 2 started in 1927
The war would pause due to Japanese agression in World War 2 from 1937-1945, where they would unite.
The success of the first five year plan gave Mao confidence in China's economic potential.
He launched a second five year plan, "The Great Leap Foward", and instituted communes.
The peasants had no drive to work, as only the government benefited. This led to a great famine, causing at least 20 million deaths.
Government type:
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China:
Xi Jinping
Premier of the People's Republic of China:
Li Keqiang
$9.24 trillion
Unemployment rate:
Literacy rate:
1.35 billion
Mao's Socialism
Communist China Expands
In the early years of Mao's victory, China expands into Tibet, India, and Mongolia. In an intense assault between 1950-1951, China finally gains control of Tibet. Though Mao promised autonomy to the Tibetans who were very religious and believed strongly in their leader, the Dalai Lama, he constricted their freedom by the late 1950's. This caused the Dalai Lama to flee to India.
"The force of the peasantry is like that of the raging winds and driving rain. . . . They will bury beneath them all forces of imperialism, militarism, corrupt officialdom, village bosses and evil gentry."
Fun Fact:
Mao's Legacy
Failed Revolution
The people of Tibet, angered by their constricted freedom, plan a revolution that fails in 1959.
In 1962, China and India clashed over their unclear borders.
During the Great Leap Foward, the government encouraged citizens to produce steel within their own homes in, "Backyard Furnaces" to produce their own steel.
Peasant equality, revolution spirit and hard work makes for a better Chinese economy
Lack of modern technology hurt China's agricultural and industrial output
Mao's policies hurt the economy
Communes replaced family life
Peasants had no incentive to work hard
This produced high-carbon pig iron, not steel, which needed to be decarburized before it become steel material.
An influential member of the chinese communist party during the time of Mao.

China After WWII
Though they had come out of the war victorious on the Allies side, China did not win many victories. Their casualties were very high, only second to the Soviet Union, and Japanese armies devastated most of their cities.
Mao Zedong, unlike Soviet Russia, believed in the revolutionary potential of the peasantry class. During his time
The Chinese Armies During WWII
Army named Red Army. Mobilized peasants for guerrilla war against Japanese. Gave many efforts to promote literacy and improve food production, winning the peasants' loyalty. Controlled much of northern China.
They were protected by rugged mountain ranges in southwestern China. The US sent lots of financial help to fight the Chinese but the money often ended up in the wrong hands. Instead of fighting against the Japanese, they saved most of their strength for the battle against Mao's army.

Mao Zedong, unlike Soviet Russia, believed in the revolutionary potential of the peasantry class. During his time
The ways that each army would contribute to the war would affect the Civil War later on.
US Anti-Communist Feelings
These feelings grew when China and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship in 1950.
Many viewed the Civil War victory to be a step towards a Communist attempt to conquer the world.
The communist victory in China stirred anti-Communist feelings in America.
The Beginning of a Transformation
Civil War
Conflicts with Japan
Strengthen rule
China decades before:
Communist goals:
Mandate of Heaven
In a first attempt at this rapid restoration, the Communists tightened their hold by claiming a new "Mandate of Heaven" which gave them divine right to lead. This mandate would strengthen them.

Zhou Enlai (joh ehn-ly)
China entered modern period in the 1970's
Premier since 1949
Let Americans into China
Took the first steps in opening up China to the rest of the world
China Opens Its Doors
Zhou invited the American table tennis team to tour China
The first American since 1949
America changed its policy and endorsed UN membership of the Peoples Republic of China
1972 President Nixon went to China

Mao's Socialism
Unlike the Soviets, Mao believed in revolution by the peasants.
The public believed that party officials profited into their positions that had lead to an event in 1989 called...
"I thought I was going back to Vietnam, but instead they decided the best way for me to fight the communists was to play ping-pong... I was so good that some years later the Army decided that I should be on the All-American ping-pong team. We were the first Americans to visit the land of China in like a million years or something like that, and somebody said world peace was in our hands, but all I did was play ping-pong." -Forest Gump
The student protest had won widespread popular support.
Thousand of students had begun a hunger strike to highlight their cause
People then poured into Tienanmen Square to support them.
Many students usually went for Deng Xiaoping to resign
Zhou, translator, Mao, President Nixon, Henry Kissinger
Beijing, 1972
Instead of Deng Xiaoping considering political reform, he declared martial law.
about 100,00o surrounded Beijing
5,000 chose to remain
students revived their spirits by dramatically building a 33 foot statue that they named "Goddess of Democracy"
June 4,1989, the standoff came to an end
lead soldiers to destroy the "Goddess of Democracy
They also attacked protesters along Beijing
The assault killed hundreds and wounded thousands
Deng Xiaoping (duhng show-poing) 1980
After both Zhou and Mao died in 1976 Deng took control of the Communist Party
By 1980 he was the most powerful leader in China
Was the last “old revolutionaries”, who had been ruling since 1949
He was a communist, but supported moderate economic policies
Willing to use capitalist ideas in order to help China’s economy
Took in the idea of Four Modernizations

During a lifetime, Deng continued his program of economic reforms.
Four Modernizations
Moved out of the limelight in 1995,still remained leader
February 1997, Deng died
Communist party general secretary Jiang Zemin assumed the presidency
In 1963, The Four Modernizations were goals that were set by Zhou Enlai and were started by Deng Xiaoping
They were goals that would strengthen the fields of:
National Defense
Started by eliminating Mao’s communes and went back to leasing land to individual farmers, farmers would pay rent by giving the set quota of food to the government and farmers could make profit off the crops they grow and sell
Between the years of 1978-1984 food production increased by 50%
Government permitted people to own private businesses
This gave freedom to set production goals to managers of state-owned industries
Foreign technology and investment was welcomed
Economic policies made it so people had money buy: televisions, appliances, kids and teen began to buy stylish clothing and listen to western music and also led to lots of tourist coming to China

The Negative Effect of Four Modernizations
A highly intelligent and educated man, who had served as a major of Shanghai.
Considered s skilled, flexible, and practical but no military experience.
1997, Jiang paid a state to visit the United States, who sooner admitted that china had made some mistakes and refused to promise that china's policies would change .
late 2002 Jieng announced his retirement but remained political leader of the military and supported china while Hu Jintao( his successor) became president

Deng believed that the benefit is greater then they risk
Students went to study abroad in the west
Learned about democracy
Began to question China's political freedom

China Enters new Millennium
China under Jiang
Transfer of Hong Kong
During his time, 80% of peasants lived in rural areas, but only 10% owned land, and that 10% controlled 70% of the land.

Mao's Decline
After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, China's relationship with Soviet Russia begin deteriorating.
A thriving business center and british colony on the southeastern coast of China.
Mao reduced his role in gov
Other government leaders drifted away from his ideals.
Cultural Revolution
Mao saw the new ideals as failures and encouraged the young generation in 1966 to, “learn revolution by making revolution.”
July 1, 199, great Britain handed Hong Kong over China, ending 155 years of colonial rule.
China promised to respect Hong Kong's economic system and political liberties for 50 years
Citizens started to question and gather worrisome about chinese rule and the loss of their freedom
In the first four five year's after the transfer, the control of main land China over Hong Kong
The case China demonstrates that the creation of democracy can be slow, fitful, and incomplete process. Liberal reforms in one are, such as the economy, may not lead immediately to political reforms.
Millions of students in high school and college formed militia groups called Red Guards
The Red Guards shut down many schools and imprisoned thousands
Aimed to eradicate the threat of the intellectual.
Talya Bornstein, Ryan Siu, Sivan Perets, Isa Correa
The Cultural Revolution caused distress and threatened civil war in China.
In 1968 even Mao admitted it had gotten out out hand and needed to be stopped.
The Army was ordered to put down the Red Guards
Zhou Enlai, Chinese Party Founder, begin restoring order to China.
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