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subordinate clause

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lezah aznalpmet

on 14 September 2012

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Transcript of subordinate clause

Syntactic and Semantic Functions of Subordinate Clauses Syntactic Functions of Subordinate Clauses 1. Subject Four Main Syntactic Functions of Subordinate Clauses: 2. Object 3. Complement 4. Adverbial That we need a larger computer has become obvious. 2a. Direct Object He doesn't know whether to send a gift. 2b. Indirect Object You can tell whoever is waiting that I'll be back in ten minutes. 3a. Subject Complement One likely result of the postponement is that the cost of constructing the college will be very much higher. Extaposition: - a combination of words that contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete sentence. Subordinate clause 3b. Object Complement I know her to be reliable. When you see them, give them my best wishes. Post Modifier in Noun Phrase Other Functions: Few of the immigrants retained the customs that they had brought with them. Prepositional Complement It depends on what we decide. Adjectival Complementation We are happy to see you. 1. Nominal That-clause Nine Categories: NOMINAL CLAUSES 1. That-clauses 2. Wh-interrogative clauses 3. Yes-No and alternative interrogative clauses 4. Exclamative clauses 5. Nominal relative clauses 6. To-infinitive clauses 7. -ing clauses 8. Bare infinitive clauses 9. Verbless clauses May function as: Subject: That the invading troops have been withdrawn has not affected our government's trade sanctions. Direct object: I noticed that he spoke English with an Australian accent. Subject complement: My assumption is that interest rates will soon fall. Appositive: Your criticism, that no account has been taken of psychological factors, is fully justified. Adjectival complementation: We are glad that you are able to join us on our wedding anniversary. The subject that-clause is usually extaposed by the use of anticipatory or preparatory it. That you care pleases me.
It please me that you care. That this will do any good is far from clear.
It is far from clear that this will do any good. That you came to inform on your parents is good.
It is good that you came to inform on your parents. but cannot be omitted in a subject clause or nonrestrictive appositive clause Zero That-clause when the that-clause is direct object, complement, or extaposed, the conjunction that is frequently omitted It's a pity (that) you don't know Russian. (x) You don't know Russian is a pity.
(x) Your criticism, no account has been taken of psychological factors, is fully justified. 2. Wh-interrogative clauses May function as: Subject: How the book will sell depends on the reviewers. Direct object: I can't imagine what they want with your address. Subject complement: The problem is who will water my plants when i am away. Appositive: Your original question, why he did not report it to the police earlier, has not yet been answered. Adjectival complementation: I'm not sure which she prefers. Prepositional complement: They did not consult us on whose names should be put forward. Compare the known information in the that-clause with the unknown information in the wh-clause 3. Yes-No and alternative interrogative clauses Wh-clauses +
to-infinitive Grammatical similarity between wh-clauses and wh-question: I know (that) Caroline will be there.
~ Do you know who will be there? I'm sure (that) Ted has paid.
~ I'm not sure who has paid. -the wh-element is placed first I asked them on what they based their predictions. (formal) I asked them what they based their predictions on. I don't know what to say. [... what I should say.] You must tell them how to start the motor. [... how one / they should start the motor. I'm wondering where to put my coat. [... where I should put my coat.] Note: This pattern is not usually used with why. - have the same functions as wh-clauses - introduced by subordinators whether or if Do you know whether / if the banks are open? Alternative clauses Yes-no interrogative clauses - formed with correlatives whether...or or if...or I can't find out whether/if the flight has been delayed or (whether/if) it has been cancelled. I asked them if they wanted meat or fish. I don't care if they join us or not. Repetition is possible with to-infinitive clauses He didn't tell us whether to wait for him or (whether) to go on without him. Note: If the second clause omitted the adjectival to, the subordinator is not repeated. He didn't tell us whether to wait for him or go on without him. Difference between the use of whether and if If cannot introduce a subject clause If cannot introduce a to-infinitve clause If cannot be followed directly by or not (o) Whether she likes the present is not clear to me.
(x) If she likes the present is not clear to me. (o) I don't know whether to see my doctor today.
(x) I don't know if to see my doctor today. (o) He didn't say whether or not he'll be staying in my house.
(x) He didn't say if or not he'll be staying in my house. 5. Nominal Relative Clauses
- resemble wh-interrogative clauses but are more like noun phrases because they can refer to concrete and abstract entities 6. To-infinitive clauses 4. Exclamative clauses Independent exclamative clauses To-infinitive as subject Subject: To be neutral in this conflict is out of the question. Direct object: He likes to relax. Subject complement: The best excuse is to say that you have an examination tomorrow morning. Appositive: Your ambition, to become a farmer, requires the energy and perseverance that you so obviously have. Adjectival complementation: I'm not very eager to meet her. May function as: Note: Extraposition is usual with subject clauses It is out of the question to be neutral in this conflict. - normally requires a preceding for For your country to be neutral in this conflict is out of the question.
~ It is out of the question for your country to be neutral in this conflict. To-infinitive as direct object - for is generally not used He likes everyone to relax. Certain verbs of wantiing and their antonyms allow an optional for in the object clause He didn't like (for me) to be alone at night May generally function as: Extaposed subject: It's incredible how fast she can run. ['It's incredible that she can run so fast.'] Direct object: I remember what a good time I had at your party. ['I remember that i had such a good time at your party.'] Prepositional complement: I read an account of what an impression you had made. ['I read an account that you had made an excellent (or a terrible) impression.'] - formed using what as predeterminer in a noun phrase and how as intensifier of an adjective, adverb, or clause. Whoever did that should admit it frankly. [The person who did that...] Nominal Relative Clauses - can be analyzed as a noun phrase modified by relative clauses, but the wh-element is merged with its antecedent. I took what they offered me.
[...the thing(s) that they offered me.] Macy's is where I buy my clothes.
[...the place where I buy my clothes.] Examples: May have number concord with the verb of the sentence Whatever book you see is yours to take.
Whatever books i have in the house are borrowed. May function like noun phrases: Subject: What I want is a cup of hot cocoa. Direct object: You should see whoever deals with complaints. Indirect object: He gave whoever asked for it a copy of his latest paper. Subject complement: April is when the lilacs bloom. Object complement: You can tell me what(ever) you like. Appositive: I'll pay you the whole debt: What I originally borrowed and what I owe you in interest. Prepositional complement: You should vote for which(ever) candidate you think best. 7. -ing clauses May Function as: Subject: Watching television keeps them out of mischief. Direct object: He enjoys playing practical jokes. Subject complement: His first job had been selling computers. Appositive: His current research, investigating attitudes to racial stereotypes, takes up most of his time. Adjectival complementation: They are busy preparing a barbecue. -ing clause has a subject that may be genitive or objective Genitive: I object to his / Jeremy's receiving an invitation. Objective: I objected to him / Jeremy receiving an invitation. Genetive Case - grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. It often marks a noun as being the owner of another noun Nominal -ing clause - may refer to a fact or an action Fact: Your driving a car to New York in your condition disturbs me greatly. Action: Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected. 8. Bare Infinitives Most Common Functions: Subject: Turn off the tap was all I did. Subject complement: What the plan does is (to) ensure a fair pension for all. (The to of the infinitive is optional when the clause is subject complement.) Bare infinitive clause - may function as object complement They made her pay for the damage. - may follow prepositions of exception She did everything but make her bed. 9. Verbless clause A friend in need is a friend indeed. (proverb) Wall-to-wall carpet in every room is their dream. Are bicycles wise in heavy traffic? These may be paraphrased: To be a friend in need is to be a friend indeed. Having wall-to-wall carpets in every room is their dream. Is it wise to have bicycles in heavy traffic? Adverbial Clauses Conditional causes Concessive clauses Reason Clauses Prupose Clauses Result causes Clauses of similarity and comparison Clauses of proportion Clauses of preference Comment clauses Conditional Clauses Clause of Contrast Clauses of exception If you put the baby down, she'll scream. Most Common Subordinators: if and unless Others are: given that <formal>,
on condition (that), provided (that), supposing (that) More Examples: Unless the strike has been called off, there will be no trains tomorrow. He doesn't mind inconveniencing others just so he's comfortable. <informal> You may leave the apartment at any time, provided that you give a month's notice. In case you want me, I'll be in my office. Indirect Condition: His style is florid, if that's the right word. If you're going my way, I need a lift. She's far too considerate, if I may say so. Nonfinite and verbless clauses with with or without as subordinators - may express a conditional relationship Without me to supplement your income, you wouldn't be able to manage. With them on our side, we are secure. Open and Hypothetical Condition Open Condition are neutral. (leave unresolved the question of the fulfillment or nonfulfillment of the condition) If Colin is in London, he is undoubtedly staying at the Hilton. Hypothetical Condition (conveys the speaker's belief that the condition will not be fulfilled) If he changed his options, he'd be a more likable person. Rhetorical Conditional clauses Two types: 1. If the proposition in the main clause is obviously absurd, the proposition in the conditional clause is shown to be true. If they're Irish, I'm the Pope. [Since I'm obviously not the Pope, they're certainly not Irish.] If you believe that, you'll believe anything. [ You certainly can't believe that.] 2. If the proposition in the conditional clause is obviously true, the proposition in the main clause is shown to be true. He's ninety if he's a day. [If you'll agree that he's at least a day old, perhaps you'll take my word that he's ninety. The package weighed ten pounds if it weighed an ounce. [ The package certainly weighed ten pounds.] Concessive Clauses - introduced chiefly by although and though <informal> - others are: while, whereas <formal>, and even if Although he had just joined, he was treated exactly like the others. No goals were scored, though it was an exciting game. While I don't want to make a fuss, I feel I must protest at your interference. Alternative conditional-concessive clause The corrrelative sequence whether...or combines the conditional meaning of if with the disjunctive meaning of either....or. Whether Martin pays for the broken vase or (whether) he replaces it with a new vase, I'm not inviting him again. He's getting married, whether or not he finds a job. Universal Conditional-concessive clauses -indicates a free choice from any number of conditions. It is introduced by the wh-words that combine with -ever Whatever I say to them, I can't keep them quiet. Stand perfectly still, wherever you are. 6. To-infinitive clause May function as: Subject: To be neutral in this conflict is out of the question. Direct Object: He likes to relax. Subject Complement: The best excuse is to say that you have an exam tomorrow. Appositive: Your ambition, to become a farmer, requires energy. Adjectival complementation: I'm very eager to meet her. Clauses of Contrast - introduced by whereas and while Mr. Larson teaches Physics, while Mr. Corby teaches Chemistry. I ignore them, whereas my husband is always worried about what they think of us. Clauses of Exception - introduced by but that <formal>, except <informal>, except that, only <informal>, excepting (that), save <rare & formal>, and save that <formal> I would pay you now, except that I don't have any money on me. Nothing would satisfy the child but that I place her on my lap. <formal> Reason Clauses - introduced by subordinators like because, since, as, for <somewhat formal>, and seeing (that). He's thin because he hasn't eaten enough. As Jane was the eldest, she looked after the others. Since we live near the sea, we often go sailing. Purpose Clauses - introduced by in order to <formal> and so as to. (infinitival) Students should take notes (so as) to make revision easier. They left the door open (in order) for me to hear the baby. - introduced by so that or so <informal>, and in order that (finite clauses) The school closes earlier so (that) the children can get home before dark. The jury and the witnesses were removed from the court in order that they might not hear a thing. Result Clauses - introduced by so that and so. We paid him immediately, so (that) he left contented. I took no notice of him, so (that)he flew into a rage. Clauses of Similarity and Comparison Clauses of Preference Clauses of similarity - use as and like Please do (exactly) as I said. It was (just) like I imagined it Clauses of Comparison - use as if, as though, and like <informal> She looks as if she's getting younger. She treated me as though I was/were a stranger. - use rather than and sooner than + bare infinitives Rather than go there by air, I'd take the slowest train. They'll fight to the finish sooner than surrender. Comment Clauses Different Types: 1. like the matrix of the main clause There were no other applicants. 2. an adverbial finite clause I'm working the night shift, as you know. 3. a nominal relative clause What was more upsetting, we lost all our luggage. 4. to-infinitive clause as style disjunct I'm not sure what to do, to be honest. 5. -ing clause as style disjunct I doubt, speaking as a layman, whether television is the right medium for that story. 6. -ed clause as style disjunct Stated bluntly, he had no chance of winning Sentential Relative Clauses - may refer back to the predicate of a clause, a whole sentence, or even a series of sentence Colin married my sister and i married his brother, which makes Colin and me double in-laws. They say he plays truant, which he doesn't. Absolute Clauses - may be -ing, -ed, or verbless clauses No further discussion arising, the meeting was brought to a close. Lunch finished, the guests retired to the lounge. Supplementive Clauses - adverbial participle and verbless clauses without a subordinator Reaching the river, we pitched camp for the night. Julia, being a nun, spent much of her time in prayer and meditation. Comparative Clauses Sentential Clauses Comaparative clause - a proposition expressed in the main clause is compared to the proposition expressed in the subordinate clause Jane is as healthy as her sister.
Jane is healthier than her sister. (comparison of equivalence) (comparison of nonequivalence) Clauses functions of the comp-element: Subject: More people use this brand than (use) any other window-cleaning fluid. Direct object: She knows more history than most people (know). Indirect object: That toy has given more children happiness than any other (toy has). Subject complement: Lionel is more relaxed than he used to be. Object complement: She thinks her children more obedient than (they were) last year. Adverbial: You’ve been working much harder than I (have). Prepositional complement: She’s applied for more jobs than Joyce (has applied for). Ellipsis in Comparative Clauses James and Susan often go to plays but James enjoys the theater more than Susan enjoys the theater. James enjoys the theater more than Susan enjoys it. James enjoys the theater more than Susan does. James enjoys the theater more than Susan James enjoys the theater more Ambiguity through Ellipsis He loves her more than his children. ... than his children love his dog. ... than he loves his children. Compare: He loves her more than me. He loves her more than I. Enough & Too Enough (Comparison of Sufficiency) They're rich enough to own a car. Too (Comparison of Excess) She's too old to do any work. ~end~
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