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Lissa Gimenez

on 21 March 2013

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Periods of risks during pregnancy and fetal development Milestones in human development Work Cited 4 weeks External appearance:
-Body well formed
-Nose is flat
-Eyes far apart
-Digits are formed
-Head is elevated
-Tail almost disappear
-Eyes, ears, nose, and mouth recognizable

GI System:
-Intestinal villa developing
-Small intestines coil within the umbilical cord
-Palatal folds present
-Liver is large
Circulatory system:
-Main blood vessels assume final plan
-Enucleated red cells predominate in blood 8 Weeks EXTERNAL APPEARANCE
-Resembles a human
-Nails appear and fine hair called lanugo appear on eyebrows and upper lips
-Head is erect but the body is disproportionately large
-Skin is pink and delicate
-Weighs about 19 grams and measures about 6-9 cm long

-Intestines withdraw from cord and assume characteristic position
-Bile is secreted
-Palatal fusion is complete

-Some bones well outlined and ossification is spreading
-Upper cervical to lower sacral ossify
-Smooth muscles layers indicated in hollow viscerar 12 Weeks Perry, S. E., Hockenberry, M. J., Lowdermilk, D. L., & Wilson, D. (2010). Maternal child nursing care. (4th ed ed., pp. 174-188). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby.

http://erwinadr.blogspot.com/2010/05/fetal-development-month-by-month.html Weeks 4- 40 12 Weeks cont. CIRCULATORY
- Bloods forms in the marrow

- Lungs acquire definite shape and vocal cords appear

- Kidney able to secrete urine and bladder expands as a sac

- Brain structures configures almost complete
- Cord shows cervical and lumbar enlargements
- 4th ventrical foramina are developed
- Sucking present

- Earliest taste buds indicated
- Characteristics of eyes attained

- Sex recognizable External Appearance:
-Body is flexed, C shaped
-Arm and leg buds are present
-Head is at right angles to body

GI System:
-Stomach at midline and fusiform
-Able to see the liver
-Esophagus short
-Intestine short tube

Musculoskeletal System:
-All somites present

Circulatory System:
-Heart starts to develop
-Double chambers visible
-Heart begins to beat
-Aortic arch and major veins completed Respiratory system:
-Lung buds appear

Renal system:
-Rudimentary ureteral buds appear

Nervous system:
-Well marked membrane flexure
-No hindbrain or cervical flexure
-Neural groove closed

Sensory organs:
-Eye and ear starts to appear as optic vessel and otocyst 4 Weeks 8 Weeks Musculoskeletal System:
- Ossification of the occiput, mandible, and humerus starts
-Fetus capable of some movement
-Definitive muscles of trunk, limbs, and head well represented

Renal system:
-Earliest secretory tubules differentiating
-Bladder urethra separates from rectum

Nervous system:
-Cerebral cortex begins to acquire typical cells
-Differentiation of cerebral cortex, meninges, ventricular formina, CSF circulation
-Spinal cord extends entire length of spine

Sensory organs:
-Primordial choroid plexuses develop
-Ventricles large relative to cortex
-Eyes converging rapidly
-Internal ear developing 16 Weeks EXTERNAL APPERANCE
-Head is still dominant
-Face looks human
-Eyes, ears, and nose approach typical appearance on gross examination, arm/leg ratio proportionate, scalp hair appears
-Weighs 100 grams and 11.5-13.5 cm in length

-Meconium in bowel
-Some enzyme secretions
-Anus open

-Most bones are distinct throughout body
-Joint cavities appear
-Muscular movements can be detected 16 Weeks Circulatory
-Heart muscle well developed
-Blood formation active in spleen
-Elastic fibers appear in lungs
-Terminal and respiratory bronchioles appear
-Kidney in position and attains typical shape and plan
-Cerebral lobes delineated
-Cerebellum assumes some prominence
-General sense organs differentiated
-Testes in position for descent into scrotum
-Vagina opens 20 Weeks External Appearance
-fetus is 16-18.5cm and weighs approx. 300g
- the vernix caseosa (white cheesy material that protects fetus's skin) appears as well as the sebaceous glands, which help to form the vernix
- lanugo (fine tiny hairs) appears all over body; eyelashes, eyebrows, and scalp hair start to grow
- legs are lengthening

GI system:
- Continues forming as the ascending colon is now recognizable and there is enamel and dentine depositing 28 Weeks External Appearance:
-fetus lean, skin is less red and wrinkled, nails appear
- fetus is about 27cm and 1100g
-talus and ankle bone ossifies; fetus has weak movements and minimum tone
- lecithinforms on alveolar surfaces
-cerebral fissures appear; indefinite sleep-wake cycle which mother can detect; weak or absent cry and weak suck reflex
- eyelids reopen, and fetus can see. pupils reactive to light. 30-31 Weeks External Appearance:
-Subcutaneous fat beginning to collect
-More rounded appearance
-Skin pink and smooth
-Has assumed birth position

Musculoskeletal System:
-Middle fourth phalanxes ossify
-Permanent teeth primordial seen
-Can turn head to side

Respiratory System:
-L/S ratio=1.2:1 30-31 Weeks Nervous System:
(same as 28 wks)

Sensory organs:
-Sense of taste present
-Aware of sounds outide mother’s body

Genital System:
-Testes descending to scrotum (if boy) 36 & 40 Weeks 36-40 Weeks Renal System:
-36wk-Formation of new nephrons ceases

Nervous System:
-36wk- End of spinal cord at level of third lumbar vertebra (L3); definite sleep-wake cycle
-40wk- Myelination of brain begins; patterned sleep-wake cycle with alert periods; cries when hungry on uncomfortable; strong suck reflex

Genital System:
-40wk- Testes in scrotum; labia majora well developed 24 Weeks External Appearance
-fetus is lean but proportioned; it is about 23cm long at weighs about 600g. At this point, viability is possible (survival outside uterus)
- it's skin is red and wrinkled and vernix caseosa is present and thick. sweat glands are beginning to form
Circulatory System
- blood formation decreases in liver but increases in bone marrow
Respiratory System:
- alveolar ducts and sacs present; lecithin increases after 24 weeks (week 26 or 27) and begins to appear in amniotic fluid
- Cerebral cortex is layered and neuronal proliferation ends
- fetus can hear and responds to sound; mother's voice can soothe fetus, fetus becomes accustomed to repeated noises
-Testes are at inguinal ring in their descent to scrotum External Appearance:
-36 wk- Skin pink, body rounded; general lanugo disappearing; body usually plump.
-40 wk- Skin smooth and pink; scant vernix caseosa; moderate-to-profuse hair; lanugo on shoulders and upper body only; nasal and alar cartilage apparent.

Musculoskeletal System:
-36 wk- Distal femoral ossification centers present; sustained, definite movements; fair tone; can turn and elevate head
-40 wk- Active, sustained movement; good tone; may lift head

Respiratory System:
-36wk- L/S ratio > 2:1
-40wk- Pulmonary branching only two-thirds complete Videos 20 Weeks Musculoskeletal:
- sternum ossifies
-Ossification continues in other bones and mother can now feel the arm and leg movements of fetus
- Lecithin is detectable at 21 weeks.
-It is the most important surfactant because it allows lung expansion postnatally.
-Fetus's notrils reopen and it begins repiratory-like movements.
-Brain grossly formed; spinal cord is forming and ends at S1

-nose and ears ossify

-Insulin is produced by week 20 By: Brian Almojuela, Melissa Gimenez, Toni Hollenbach, Whitley Miles, Christine Rosillo 38 WEEKS!!
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