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Transcript of Cytology
There are things
smaller than a cell:
But they are _____ALIVE!
They perform all 8 life functions!!!
All considered living material. Why??
Organization of Life
-all of the living,
-all of the living and
-the inhabitable layer around the planet, from the highest point in the atmosphere, to the deepest part of the ocean
-all of the members
of one species.
As microscopes improved over the years, scientists were able to see cells, and then inside cells with more detail. Their observations lead us to……
How did they see them??
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1. Cells are the
Unit of Structure
for all living things. All organisms are made up of one or more cells (either unicellular or multicellular).
The Cell Theory
1. Viruses are NOT composed of cells. But they do contain their own DNA/RNA). They also can reproduce in the presence of a host cell.
3. Where did the first cells come from?
Exceptions to the Cell Theory:
Only very basic organelles
FUNCTION: the cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell.
Made of lipids and proteins
= FAT molecules
Organelles are parts of a cell that carry out specific functions.
cell (plasma) membrane
_________ Endoplasmic Reticulum
________ Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. ______________________________ (in ALL cells)
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
2. Cytoplasm (in ALL cells)
- Holds all the organelles of the cell
- Site of all chemical reactions
- Transports materials around the cell
Made mostly of water
3. ______________________________ (in plant & animal)
- Organelle surrounded by a membrane
- Contains all of the cells DNA
-Contains a nucleolus which produces ribosomes
Cell to cell communication is essential for the smooth operation of any multicellular organism!
3 examples of when protein receptor molecules play a role in cell to cell communication in a human:
Proteins on the surface of the cell membrane that act as receptor molecules.
Receive specific chemical messages from other cells.
- Control Center of the cell
- Controls all of the life functions in the cell
- Nickname the “brain” of the cell.
What life functions does the nucleus perform?
Structure: the E.R. is a system of fluid filled ________ that form a connected _________ throughout the cell.
_____________ E.R.- The outer surfaces are smooth.
____________ E.R.- The outer surfaces are rough due to the ___________ (polka dots) attached to outside.
In plants too!
(not drawn here)
6. __________________________ (in ALL cells)
Function: the tubes of the E.R. provide a path of __________ of materials throughout the cell. At some spots, the membranes of the E.R. and the cell membrane connect allowing materials in and out of the cell.
5. ______________________ (in ALL cells)
Function: proteins that the cell needs are made in the ribosomes by a process known as _______________________.
Structure: are very small _____ shaped organelles found attached to the rough E.R. or found floating free in the __________.
- oval shaped organelle
- contains its own DNA
- made of two membranes
4. _____________________ (in ALL cells)
Think: “”Lysol” killing/DIGESTING bacteria (invader)
In single-celled organisms, they digest food within the cell (_____________)
In multi-celled organisms, they help destroy old worn-out organelles, help ________ disease by eating/digesting foreign ___________ (Immune system)
9. _________________ (in ALL cells)
Structure: are small sac-like structures surrounded by a single membrane.
7. _______________________ (in ALL cells)
In plants too!
(not drawn here)
Structure: made of membranes forming flattened ______ and round vesicles.
Said to resemble a “stack of pancakes.”
Function: ____________, __________ and _________(release) molecules for the cell.
8. _______________ (in ALL cells)
In animal cells
(not drawn here)
Function: only function when its time for ______
10. ________________ (only in __________ cells)
- produces ATP
- known as the powerhouse of the cell
Ribosomes (polka dots)
Structure: are fluid filled organelles surrounded by a membrane.
In animal cells= _____
In plant cells = ______
Function: serve as a _________ site for cell materials (______, _______ or ________.)
Structure: a ______ of barrel shaped organelles which lie at right angles to each other, usually near the nucleus of an animal cell.
NOT in Plant Cells
11. _______________ (only in ________ cells)
Structure: an _______ shaped organelles with two membranes. Inside there are stacks of membranes known as grana and fluid known as stroma.
Chloroplasts are “filled” with a green pigment, _______________, which absorbs light during photosynthesis
Structure: a non-living _________ structure outside the cell membrane of plant cells.
Its made of a complex starch/carbohydrate: _________________
Function: provides structural ____________ for plant cells. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.
Function: the site of
__________________ in plant cells. The Carbon dioxide and water taken in by the plant, with the _________ absorbed by _________________ will be converted into _______ and oxygen here.
13. ______________ (only in ________ cells)
Major Differences between:
No Cell Wall
Think “YOU” are a “Eukaryote”- animal cell
Ex: Plants & Animal Cells
Prokaryote- No nucleus
Eukaryote- Has nucleus
2. Cells are the
Unit of Function
for all living things. All cells perform the 8 life functions. (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S)
3. All cells
come from pre-existing cells
(or cells that were alive before).
Has complex organelles
Based on this description, the cell membrane performs which two life functions?
Regulation and Transport