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Cytology

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by

James Wiley

on 19 September 2015

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Transcript of Cytology

2. Some cell parts (mitochondria & chloroplast) contain their own DNA and can reproduce independently in a cell.
There are things
smaller than a cell:
organelles, chemicals
or molecules…
But they are _____ALIVE!
NOT
They perform all 8 life functions!!!
All considered living material. Why??
Organization of Life
tissue
organ
organ system
organism
cell
-all of the living,
plants and
animals
-all of the living and
non-living together

-the inhabitable layer around the planet, from the highest point in the atmosphere, to the deepest part of the ocean

-all of the members
of one species.
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere
Theodor Schwann
Matthias Schleiden
As microscopes improved over the years, scientists were able to see cells, and then inside cells with more detail. Their observations lead us to……
How did they see them??
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Rudolph Virchow
1. Cells are the
Unit of Structure
for all living things. All organisms are made up of one or more cells (either unicellular or multicellular).
The Cell Theory
1. Viruses are NOT composed of cells. But they do contain their own DNA/RNA). They also can reproduce in the presence of a host cell.
3. Where did the first cells come from?
Exceptions to the Cell Theory:
PROKARYOTES
EUKARYOTES
? ?
? ?
m

l

k

j

i

Animal Cell
Only very basic organelles
FUNCTION: the cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell.

STRUCTURE:
Bi-layered structure
Made of lipids and proteins
= FAT molecules
Organelles are parts of a cell that carry out specific functions.
Think mini-organs
Mitochondria
Centrioles
Nucleolus
Lysosome
Golgi Apparatus
Cytoplasm
Ribosome
Chromosomes
cell (plasma) membrane

Vacuole
_________ Endoplasmic Reticulum
________ Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth
Rough
1. ______________________________ (in ALL cells)
Cell Membrane
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
Cytoplasm
2. Cytoplasm (in ALL cells)
Function:
- Holds all the organelles of the cell
- Site of all chemical reactions
- Transports materials around the cell
Structure:
Jelly-like material
Made mostly of water

Nucleus
Nucleus
3. ______________________________ (in plant & animal)
Structure:
- Organelle surrounded by a membrane
- Contains all of the cells DNA
-Contains a nucleolus which produces ribosomes
Cell Membrane-Proteins:
Cell to cell communication is essential for the smooth operation of any multicellular organism!
3 examples of when protein receptor molecules play a role in cell to cell communication in a human:
3) ANTIBODIES
2) NEUROTRANSMITTERS
1) HORMONES
Proteins on the surface of the cell membrane that act as receptor molecules.
Receptor Molecules:
Receive specific chemical messages from other cells.
Function:
- Control Center of the cell
- Controls all of the life functions in the cell
- Nickname the “brain” of the cell.

What life functions does the nucleus perform?




Nucleolus
Chromosomes/ DNA
(Chromatin)
Nuclear pore
nucleus
Structure: the E.R. is a system of fluid filled ________ that form a connected _________ throughout the cell.

_____________ E.R.- The outer surfaces are smooth.

____________ E.R.- The outer surfaces are rough due to the ___________ (polka dots) attached to outside.
In plants too!
(not drawn here)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum
6. __________________________ (in ALL cells)
Function: the tubes of the E.R. provide a path of __________ of materials throughout the cell. At some spots, the membranes of the E.R. and the cell membrane connect allowing materials in and out of the cell.
5. ______________________ (in ALL cells)
Ribosomes
Function: proteins that the cell needs are made in the ribosomes by a process known as _______________________.
Structure: are very small _____ shaped organelles found attached to the rough E.R. or found floating free in the __________.
Structure:
- oval shaped organelle
- contains its own DNA
- made of two membranes
4. _____________________ (in ALL cells)
Mitochondria
Carbon
dioxide
glucose
oxygen
Think: “”Lysol” killing/DIGESTING bacteria (invader)
Lysosomes
lysosomes
Function:
In single-celled organisms, they digest food within the cell (_____________)

In multi-celled organisms, they help destroy old worn-out organelles, help ________ disease by eating/digesting foreign ___________ (Immune system)

9. _________________ (in ALL cells)
Structure: are small sac-like structures surrounded by a single membrane.

They contain:
______________ !
Golgi Complex
Golgi bodies
7. _______________________ (in ALL cells)
In plants too!
(not drawn here)
Structure: made of membranes forming flattened ______ and round vesicles.

Said to resemble a “stack of pancakes.”
Function: ____________, __________ and _________(release) molecules for the cell.
Vacuoles
8. _______________ (in ALL cells)
In animal cells
(not drawn here)
Centrioles
Function: only function when its time for ______

_________________________
10. ________________ (only in __________ cells)
Function:
- produces ATP
- known as the powerhouse of the cell
ATP
Mitochondria
Think: “RIBs”=Meat=Protein
cytoplasm
dot
Ribosomes (polka dots)
PROTEIN
SYNTHESIS
tubes
SMOOTH
ROUGH
ribosomes
maze
transport
sacs
synthesize
package
secrete
Food vacuole
Structure: are fluid filled organelles surrounded by a membrane.
In animal cells= _____
In plant cells = ______

Function: serve as a _________ site for cell materials (______, _______ or ________.)
small
large
storage
food
wastes
water
Vacuoles
ENZYMES
LF= Nutrition
fight
invaders
Structure: a ______ of barrel shaped organelles which lie at right angles to each other, usually near the nucleus of an animal cell.

pair


cell

division/reproduction
ANIMAL
Centrioles
NOT in Plant Cells
CYTOLOGY
Plant
Cell

Nucelus
Cytoplasm
Golgi
Apparatus

Mitochondria
Cell Membrane
Endoplasmic
Reticulum

Ribosomes
Central
Vacuole

Cell Wall
Chloroplasts
11. _______________ (only in ________ cells)
PLANT
Cell wall
Structure: an _______ shaped organelles with two membranes. Inside there are stacks of membranes known as grana and fluid known as stroma.

Chloroplasts are “filled” with a green pigment, _______________, which absorbs light during photosynthesis

Carbon
dioxide
Cell Wall
Structure: a non-living _________ structure outside the cell membrane of plant cells.

Its made of a complex starch/carbohydrate: _________________

CELLULOSE

rigid
Function: provides structural ____________ for plant cells. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.
support
Cell Wall
Cell
Membrane
chlorophyll

oval

Chloroplasts
Function: the site of
__________________ in plant cells. The Carbon dioxide and water taken in by the plant, with the _________ absorbed by _________________ will be converted into _______ and oxygen here.

13. ______________ (only in ________ cells)
Chloroplast
water
CHLOROPHYLL
light
PHOTOSYNTHESIS


glucose

sunlight
glucose
oxygen
PLANTS
Major Differences between:
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Have Centrioles
No Cell Wall
No Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
Cell Wall
No Centrioles
Nucleus
Pro- before
karyote- nucleus
Think “YOU” are a “Eukaryote”- animal cell
Eu- True
karyote- nucleus
Ex: Bacteria
Ex: Plants & Animal Cells
Prokaryote- No nucleus
Eukaryote- Has nucleus
2. Cells are the
Unit of Function
for all living things. All cells perform the 8 life functions. (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S)
3. All cells
come from pre-existing cells
(or cells that were alive before).
Has complex organelles
Based on this description, the cell membrane performs which two life functions?
Regulation and Transport
Regulation
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