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Copy of Philippine History
Transcript of Copy of Philippine History
THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES (1897 - 1898)
The Battle of Manila bay
The Secret agreement
“Spanish attempts to win overFilipinos”
Demoralizing was the effect of Aguinaldo’sreturn.
Governor General Augustin found himself betrayed by a Filipino soldier whovolunteered to Spanish army.
To Counteract, Some Spaniards with theconsent and perhaps inspiration of Governor-General, circulated a handbill entitled
(Salvation of the Unity of its local andcentral government)
– Negotiator of Truce of Biyakna Bato was behind the circular.
The Siege of Manila
Intamuros TheWalled City. The districts outside the city were called
Dewey had so far not invade or bombarded the city,where thousands of Spaniards sought refuge because he stillwaited for reinforcements.
Filipino forces under Aguinaldo besieged the city in an attempt to starve out the enemy within its walls. Thesuburbs teemed with
To make it effective,Aguinaldo cut off the citys food and water supply. It was so effective that the people inside
the citySpaniards, as well a sFilipinos and aliens suffered from hunger and taste.
June 6 and the followingday,Aguinaldo offered Gen Augustin honorable surrender, but he stubbornly refused toaccept it.
The Mock Battle of Manila
Dewey and Merritt issued a joint ultimatum to Jaudanes telling him to evacuate the noncombatants to safe places as the Americanland and naval forces would start theoperations
“against the defences of Manila”
The Filipino troops, armed to the teeth positionthemselves on the right flank of GeneralArthur MacArthur ready to rush into the fraydespite request from General Anderson notto advance his troops when attackcommenced.
In the wake of his military victories, Aguinaldo decided that it was time to establish a Filipino government. He had with him when he arrived from Hong Kong a draft of a plan prepared by Mariano Ponce for the establishment of a revolutionary government: Consul Wildman, however, had advised Aguinaldo earlier to establish a dictatorial government which later on could be the nucleus of a republican government similar to that of the United States. Probably because the critical times demanded a government with a strong executive, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo's adviser, told him to form a dictatorial government.
Consequently, Aguinaldo made known his intention of establishing such a form of government when he announced, in the morning of May 24, 1898, that he was assuming "command of all the troops in the struggle for the attainment of our lofty aspirations, inaugurating a dictatorial government to be administered by decrees promulgated under my sole responsibility"
Later in the day, he issued a decree formally establishing the Dictatorial Government. The decree nullified the orders issued under the authority of the Biyak-na-Bato republic and asserted that the Dictatorial Government was temporary in nature, "so that, when peace shall have been reestablished and our legitimate aspiration for unrestricted liberty attained, it may be modified by the nation, in which rests the principle of authority."
The relief of primo de rivera
The spanish-american war
The Relief on Primo de Rivera
The succeeding liberal party sent General Basilio Augustin to the Philippines as Primode Rivera¶s successor. This was unfortunate, for the new governor-general was ignorantof the actual conditions in the Philippines. On April 9, 1898, General Augustin arrived inManila, and the following day Primo de Rivera turned over the reins of the Philippinegovernment to his successor. Immediately upon his assumption of office, the governor announced that he would continue Primo de Rivera¶s work of pacification.
The Spanish-American War
In the face of the Philippines and the Cuban revolutions, Spain could not antagonize theUnited States. She therefore tried to heal the rift in order not to draw her into a fatal war with a rising powerful nation. Spain's ambassador to the United States, Dupuy de Lome,wrote a friend in Havana, Cuba in January 1898, stating that the President WilliamMcKinley was a weakling and low politician. This letter was stolen and published in aNew York periodical. The result of its publication was that the Americans who had beenrouse with anger demanded war against the Spain.
The Battle of Manila Bay
With receipt of secretary Long¶s cable announcing the declaration of war with Spain,Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay, near Hongkong, for the Philippines with seven heavilyarmed ships. Early morning of May 1, 1898, his fleet entered Manila Bay almostundetected by the Spanish shore batteries on Corregidor and Bataan. Dewey Sailedstraight toward the Manila Bay shore in the hope that he would find Admiral PatricioMontojo¶s fleet there and give battle immediately.
The naval battle that followed was one sided, in fact it was a massacre. The Spanishships outnumbered those of the Americans, the former were, nevertheless, poorlyarmed. All in all, the American fleet had more tonnage than the Spanish flotilla. TheSpaniards, in the face of absolute defeat, hoisted the white flag in Cavite in token of surrender.
Agiunaldo goes to singapore
On July 17, the second reinforcements, headed by General Francis V. Greene, arrived.With the fresh troops, the Americans were confident that they could easily dislodge theSpaniards from the city. Hope of an easy victory filled their hearts when the thirdreinforcement headed by general Arthur Mac Arthur arrived on July 31. Preparationswere immediately made for the battle that would determine the fate of Manila. Jaudeneslike Augustin, believed that the Spanish positions was hopeless in the face of a superior enemy and in the face of the Filipino; rebels. To save face, he insisted that to satisfy theSpanish code of honor there should be a mock battle, after which the Spanish armedforces would surrender. He further insisted that the Filipino rebels should be excludedfrom participating in the surrender of Manila. This agreement between Jaudenes,on onehand, and Dewey and Merritt, on the other, was so secret that no one else in either camp knows of its existence.
Beginnings of the Filipino- American Rift
At the time that Dewey was waiting for reinforcements, Aguinaldo and his forces werelaying siege to Manila. This situation was favorable to the Americans, for they did nothave to be on the lookout for any hostile Spanish maneuver since the job of watchingwas being done by their Filipino allies.
Aguinaldo and his companion ere following thetrend of events on the other side of thePacific. (Opportunity to oust the Spaniards inthe Philippines)
– Englishman of long residencein the Philippines, contacted Aguinaldo andtold him that the American consul, E. SpencePratt, wanted to have an interview with him.
Aguinaldo expressed his eagerness to returnto the Philippines to lead once more theFilipinos in the fight against the Spaniards.
Aguinaldo and ConsulWildman”
- American consul atHong Kong promptly met him and informedhim that Dewey had left instruction to makearrangements for Aguinaldo’s return.
Wildman suggested that upon his return to thePhilippines, Aguinaldo should establish agovernment similar to the U.S.
“Aguinaldo and the Hong Kong Junta”
Filipino composed the Hong Kong Junta
met on May 4 to discuss the steps tobe taken in the face of new developments.
After of exchange in opinions the Juntaunanimously decided that Aguinaldo shouldreturn to the Philippines to lead the Filipinosagainst Spaniards.
Aguinaldo was convinced of the wisdom of Junta’s decision and so he prepared for hisreturn to the Philippines.
Dewey launch took him to
where hewas given honors due a general.
Aguinaldo said that United States need nocolonies and that there were no doubts thatUnites States will recognize Philippineindependence.
“Renewal of the Struggle”
A number of Filipino volunteers in the Spanisharmy defected to the Filipino forces.
Aguinaldo ordered them to occupy the
the Cavite shipyard, to preventthe enemy from occupying it.
Arms were secured from the captain of theAmerican warship
and distributedamong the large number of Filipinos comingin to offer their loyalty and service toAguinaldo.
GeneralThom as Anderson
1st American Reinforcement General Francis Green
2nd American Reinforcement
Dewy thought that the surrender of Manila could be affected with the use of arms Started negotiating with Augustin through a Belgian consul André regarding the surrender
of Manila But when the Peninsular Governor heard the plan he appoint General Fermin Jaudenes in his
stead Dewey went so far as to promise to hold back the Filipino troops while the mock battle was
“Spanish and AmericanAgreement”
FREEDOM AND INDEPENDENCE (1898- 1899)
Dictatorial Government (1898)
Brig. Gen. Robert P. Hughes told the US Congress that Filipinos who wanted freedom had "no more idea of its meaning than a shepherd dog." An early statement of American policy declared that “only through American occupation” was “the idea of a free, self-governing and united Filipino commonwealth at all conceivable.”
A tattered flag of the First Philippine Republic, one of many used during the struggle for independence. The flag believed by heirs of Emilio Aguinaldo to be that unfurled by the general in Kawit, Cavite, in 1898 is encased in glass at the Aguinaldo Museum on Happy Glen Loop in Baguio City; however, the National Historical Institute has yet to authenticate this flag despite years of probing. In his letter to Capt. Emmanuel Baja dated June 11, 1925, Aguinaldo mentioned that in their Northward retreat during the Filipino-American War, the original flag was lost somewhere in Tayug, Pangasinan Province; the Americans captured the town on Nov. 11, 1899.
June 12, 1898: Declaration of Philippine Independence
On Oct. 1, 1898, American and Spanish delegates opened discussions in Paris to end the Spanish-American War. The American commission consisted of Judge William R. Day, Sen. Cushman K. Davis, Sen. William P. Frye, Sen. George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid.
The Spanish commission included the Spanish diplomats Eugenio Montero Ríos, Buenaventura de Abarzuza, José de Garnica, Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, and Gen. Rafael Cerero, as well as a French diplomat, Jules Cambon.
The Times, Washington, D.C., issue of Oct. 2, 1898, Page 1
On the same day, at Washington, D.C., Philippine ambassador Felipe Agoncillo and his secretary, Sixto Lopez, met with President William McKinley but his request that Filipinos be represented at the Paris peace talks was rejected.
Dec. 10, 1898: Treaty of Paris
Pardillo, Christine P.
Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic
On Jan. 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, popularly known as the Malolos Republic, was inaugurated amidst colorful ceremonies at the Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan Province. This was also the first republic in Asia. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as President of the Republic. He stated the aspiration of the nation "to live under the democratic regime of the Philippine Republic, free from the yoke of any foreign domination." In conclusion, he declared: "Great is this day, glorious this date, and forever memorable this moment in which our beloved people are raised to the apotheosis of Independence."
To make the event more memorable, Aguinaldo issued a decree granting pardon to all Spanish prisoners of war who were not members of the Spanish regular army and at the same time, granting to Spaniards and other aliens the right to engage in business within the limits of the Republic.
Aguinaldo wore a formal attire with top hat, white gloves, and bow tie and carried a tasseled gold-knobbed cane.
The food at the inaugural banquet was European and the menu written in French.