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Brit Lit II - Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
Transcript of Brit Lit II - Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
Written by Daniel Defoe
Published in the year of 1719
Story influenced by: Alexander Selkirk and earlier novels of a desert island
Brit Lit II
Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
Real Name: Daniel Foe
Born: London, England. 1660
His father James Foe was a butcher by trade and a protestant presbyterian.
He had a sister, Elizabeth, who was a year older.
When he was 10, his mother died.
He wanted to become a presbyterian minister, and in the 1670s he attended the Reverend Charles Morton's academy.
Daniel Defoe was the first of the eighteenth-century novelists. He wrote more than five hundred books, pamphlets, articles and novels.
In 1684 he married Marry Tuffley and they had 7 children.
In 1685 he participated in the Monmouth Rebellion, a protestant uprising, but escaped capture and punishment.
From 1685 to 1692 he engaged in trade in London as a wholesale hosiery agent, an importer of wine and tobacco, and part owner and insurer of ships.
He did business with King William III.
He suffered losses from underwriting marine insurance for the king and was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1692.
He settled with the people to whom he owed money in 1693.
He faced the threat of bankruptcy throughout his life and faced imprisonment for debt and libel seven times.
Who was Alexander Selkirk?
Born in 1676 and died in 1721
He was intentionally left on a desert island and spent four years as a castaway
Impact on literature
This novel introduced the realistic fiction as a literary genre
Castaway novels became popular on English literature of the time
Authors of the time: William Blake, Jonathan Swift, David Hume
Robinson Crusoe sets a sea trip against the wishes of his parents
During this journey, a storm destroyed his ship; afterwards he was taken by pirates and forced to be a slave
He escaped and a Portuguese captain rescued him. The captain took him to Brazil.
In a later expedition he got lost in an island near the mouth of the Orinoco river
At the end of the story, he had to fight cannibals on the island, in the process saving many of the prisoners.
Defoe's first notable publication was "An Essay upon Projects".
His most successful poem was called "The True-Born Englishman", which was written in 1701.
In the same year, he presented the Legion's Memorial to the Speaker of the House of Commons.
As a consequence of William the third's death in 1702, Defoe's involvement in the creation and distribution of pamphlets along with his political activities resulted in his arrest and placement in a pillory on 31 July 1703.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, brokered his release in exchange for Defoe's co-operation as an intelligence agent for the Tories.
The Storm (1704)
In the same year he set up his periodical A Review of the Affairs of France.
After the Tories fell from power with the death of Queen Anne, Defoe continued doing intelligence work for the Whig government, writing "Tory" pamphlets that actually undermined the Tory point of view.
UNION OF 1707
In 1709 Defoe authored "The History Of The Union Of Great Britain".
By September 1706 Harley ordered Defoe to Edinburgh as a secret agent to do everything possible to help secure acquiescence in the Treaty of Union.
Later on, Defoe was accepted as an adviser to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and committees of the Parliament of Scotland.
He used his Scottish experience to write his "Tour thro' the whole Island of Great Britain", published in 1726.
Robinson Crusoe (1719)
The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Serious Reflections During the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: with his Vision of the Angelick World (1720)
Captain Singleton (1720)
Journal of the Plague Year (1722)
Colonel Jack (1722)
Moll Flanders (1722)
Memoirs of a Cavalier (1720)