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The Scramble for Africa

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by

Amirali Mansourfar oooo

on 4 March 2013

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Transcript of The Scramble for Africa

Introduction Scramble for Africa During the 19th century, several European countries including Great Britain to take over most of the land of Africa. This became know as the 'scramble for Africa'. Since most of the powerful nations such as France, Germany and USA had already been in industrialized by the late 19th century, they saw wealthy they could be when they have conquered large areas of Africa. Once they had Africa; they could take valuable materials such as: rubber, gold, cotton, oil, diamonds etc. The British in Africa During the scramble for Africa the british succeeded in colonizing 16 huge areas in Africa which includes: Sudan Nigeria Kenya Egypt Northern and Southern Rhodesia(now Zimbabwe and Zambia) which adds up to about 30% of the whole of Africa. African Resistance The european armies had a huge advantage when conquering Africa, since they had the Maxim gun which was strong against the Africans who fought fiercely but failed to have weapons that were good enough to stand up against the European army. By the end 1870's several European countries started to take over land in Africa: The French and Belgians colonized most of the west coast of Africa; while the Germans and British completed in conquering the east and the south part of Africa. In 1884, there was a conference in Berlin to prevent war from happening between several European countries which complete for land in Africa. By Amirali, James, Jeremy and Connor The Scramble for Africa Chiwawa ZULU Who were the Zulus? Conflict How did a war in Africa change British schools? Who were the Boers? In the 1800s, the British Empire had a competitor in taking over the southern part of Africa. The Boers were the descendants of Dutch settlers who took over southern Africa during the 1600s. They had set up a colony called ‘Cape Colony’ which was taken over by Britain in 1815. The Boers then went to the north and set up another colony. They have discovered valuable resources such as diamonds and gold. Soon enough the British miners came. Threatened, the Boers and the British broke into a war in 1899 By the 1870s, the Zulus had a large proportion of land and became a large and a powerful kingdom of wealth. The British wanted to have their land so they gave the king of the Zulus an ultimatum, allowing the British settlers settle in their areas, and also to having them to get rid of the Zulu army. The Zulu King didn’t respond and the British invaded them on 11th January 1879 with an army of 6000 men. While preparing for battle, the British left a third of their men at ‘Rorke’s Drift’ and the rest went to search for the Zulu army. But the Zulu army ambushed the soldiers at the trading post, there was a message sent to the army but the message was interpreted as a false alarm. After that, the Zulus attacked the rest of the British army. The British eventually won the war but, the British were humiliated in losing so much of their men by native warriors. The Zulus were a tribal nation from the southern part of Africa. By the early 1800s, they had population of 250,00 and they had an army of about 50,000 warriors, who invaded other tribes. The had a famous tactic for war' ball horns formation', which was a tactic where the Zulus would attack their enemy from both sides and the front and they would also have men at the back waiting to fight. The Aftermath The Aftermaths Wednesday 22nd January 1879 was a both victorious and humiliating day in British history; they have performed their most heroic actions in defending Rorke’s Drift. The records were mostly focus on the defenses of ‘Rorke’s Drift’ rather than the loss of their soldiers. The end of Zulu war The Zulu war ended 6 months from the victory at Rorke’s Drift. In March, there was another attack but it was successfully defended by the British army. The British managed to do a final attack on the royal city of Ulundi and the Zulus were finally defeated in July 1879. The Zululand was finally colonized. The Boer war The Boers with only 50,000 men had stunned the British army by winning many of the battles. The British responded by sending a million men to fight in the war. Although the British had advantage in having modern technology to fight, the Boers didn’t surrender and actually succeeded in defending their land. During the Boer War a British General, Kitchener came up with a solution to make the Boers surrender their land. This tactic was called the ‘Scorched Earth’ policy. This instructed the British soldiers to burn down Boer farms and their crops and poison drinking wells etc. Also the Boers, all men, women, and children were sent to concentration camps. Over 20% of the people died of sickness in the camps. Scorched Earth The war continues to 1902, when both sides were too exhausted to continue, an agreement where the Boer states would officially become British land but the Boer could still run their lands. After this agreement, the other Boer states started to join with Cape Colony. This land became known as the ‘Union of South Africa’ or present Republic of South Africa. Peace at Last Boer War controversy The Boer War was the biggest ‘Empire war’ that Great Britain has been through. Nearly 500,000 British soldiers fought in this war and it was recorded to have approximately 8000 deaths by the war. 13,000 died due to sickness. But on the contrary, the Boers lost about 4000 soldiers in battle and over 28,000 civilians. This shows that the British were aggressive in this war and how strongly determined the British were to get the lands from the Boers. Problems Back Home There were a lot of volunteers for men who wished to fight as British soldiers but unexpectedly most of them were actually unfit for duty which made the government concerned for the wars which could potentially happen in the future. At the time the awareness of the poor class in London became more known to people by newspapers. It was known at that time that 30% of the populations were too poor and starved. By 1906, the government started to act, free meals were started to be given out to the poor children, and the government further developed into helping the children. Soon after they introduced unemployed benefit, sickness pay for old pensions and also job centers were created. Independence in Africa The beginning of the end of the British Empire By the time the First World War broke out some of the colonies of Britain had gained their own independence. Former colonies such as Canada, Australia and parts of Africa gained independence and even started to govern themselves. But after their independence, World War two occurred which strongly affected them. The Impact of World War Two During World War Two the colonies served as the soldiers, and were used as a route to supply food and other necessities to the soldiers. At the end of World of World War Two, many of the colonies demanded for their independence. The War had cost Britain a great lost in their economical wealth so they had not enough power to hold on to their colonies which lead them to freedom. Gold Coast leads the way Around the 1960s, the Gold Coast, former colonies of the British Empire, regained their independence and became present Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Kenya. Most of the countries got their freedom fairly peacefully. Some of the independent nations such as Kenya were invited to join the British Commonwealth an organization for independent countries with close cultural, trading links with Britain. A New Africa Some of the former colonies benefited some points from being colonized by Britain. For instance Egypt has developed their Tourism industry due to Britain’s help, while some of the other countries made use of their valuable natural resources. However some of the countries broke into civil war due to having problems trying to construct their own government. And worst of most the nations in Africa which were formerly colonized by Britain had to struggle with poverty. Did you know When it came to dividing the borders of Africa, the british would use cannons. The cannons were shot and the border would be where the cannonball landed. know you know Our conclusion
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