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2nd Language Instruction Guided Discussion
Transcript of 2nd Language Instruction Guided Discussion
Motivation and Affect
What is motivation?
Adriana Estevez and Susan Shi
1) What is motivation?
2) Norton's 3 Is
3) 3 mini case studies
4) Gao's paradox of intercultural communication
5) Pedagogical Implications
"The desire to achieve some goal is the bedrock of motivation... it provokes a decision to act."
Mainland Chinese Students' English Club
A Hidden Drive
Imagined communities: Chinese elites
Imagined identity: English speaking Chinese of higher social classes (L1 effect)
#2 - Proximity, contact and interaction
#5- The rewarding nature of group activities
#6- Group legend
#8- Investing in the group
#10- Cooperation toward common goals
English Club's Purpose
Practice English speaking due to Hong Kong's functional bilingualism
Build solidarity among strangers in a strange land
Discuss topics unlikely in Chinese
Chinese Learners' in Trent's Research
Different oral participation in economics class and English for Academic communication class
Chinese Students in Math Class
Conclusions in the article
Harmer, 2007, p.20
"Motivation can be broadly defined as the force behind action that explains why a person acts in a particular way."
Motivation has usually been associated with an individualistic perspective, focusing on the individual's values, attitudes, goals and intentions."
Boulay et al, 2010, p. 200
Dornyei, 2007, p. 646
Concepts of Motivation
Many learners have strong external reasons why they want to study
Other learners may just be studying for rewards within the work itself
Scrivener, 2011, p. 84
Motivation and affect are closely intertwined
Affect is how the students feel about the learning process
Harmer, 2007, p. 21
First coined by Benedict Anderson: nations are imagined communities
Bonny Norton has made considerable contribution on the topic in second language learning
Kanno & Norton, 2003, p. 241
"Refers to groups of people, not immediately tangible and accessible, with whom we connect through the power of the imagination."
"These imagined communities are no less real than the ones in which learners have daily engagement and might even have a stronger impact on their current actions and investment."
Kanno & Norton, 2003, p. 241
Kanno & Norton, 2003, p. 242
New Insight of Temporal Relationship
Here and Now
Now immediate future
There and Future
Now Imagined communities
Imagined Community, Identity, Investment
"A learner's imagined community invite(s) an imagined identity and a learner's investment in the target language must be understood within this context."
Chinese learners' investment in learning English understood within the context of learners' imagined communities and identities
Norton, 2001, p. 166
An investment in the target language is in fact an investment in the learner's own identity
English Club Background:
Mainland Chinese research students in a Hong Kong university
English Club: weekly English discussion group
Investment: ongoing participation in the club
(Identity and status are expressed by the same word in Chinese)
In the Norton case study, the Chinese English club was created outside the classroom. How can language teachers integrate the notion of imagined community into his/her classroom?
"knowledge and expertise" / "freedom and control"
- Imagined community: a group of professionals in economic fields
-Imagined identity: a professional possessed with economics knowledge
-Investment: greater oral participation in EAC where classroom practice is consistent with imagined community and identity
: student agency
-Different understanding of math knowledge
-Imagined community: future community at university
-Imagined identity: a college student who is excellent in math
-Investment: non participation in language practice in math class
-Issues of identity and investment are of relevance to Chinese English learners in EFL and ESL settings
-The target language community does not necessarily involve native speakers of English in inner-circle countries
-A safe and supportive group is productive for learners' increased investment in oral and written interaction in classroom
-Understand our students' imagined communities so that they can increase their investment in learning the target language
-Incorporate the notion of imagined community into needs analysis
-Give students a chance to articulate their imagined and desired communities to stimulate their investment in learning.
You have a student, Phoenix, in your international exams class. He is preparing to do the FCE exam. He is a 16 years old rocker/skater. He is pretty laid back, and gets along with everybody. He attends all of your classes but, you notice that he doesn't do his homework, sometimes he doesn't complete the individual activities in class and he doesn't care about his results.
His other classmates are highly motivated. It appears that he doesn't have any problems with group/pair work. Other teachers who have taught him in the past said that he is sweet, smart but, just lazy.
Due to his low marks and performance, the school director told him that he must attend coaching classes. These coaching classes happen every Friday in the afternoon for one hour. It is absolutely essential for him to pass the international exam
Identify any lack of motivation
What would you do to increase Phoenix's motivation?
"To enhance intercultural understanding, a characterization of cultural differences seems indispensable. The very categorization and characterization may reifie differences and perpetuated cultural stereotypes..."
"It is not enough to merely "respect" existing "cultural differences"....Educators are encouraged to go beyond "cultural relativism" of a conservative kind, and foster growth"
Norton & Gao, 2008, p. 116
Norton & Gao, 2008, p. 118
(2007). Creating a motivating classroom environment. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds), International handbook of English language teaching (vol.2, pp. 719-731). New York: Springer.
Kanno, Y., & Norton, B.
(2003). Imagined communities and educational possibilities: Introduction. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2(4), 241-249
Norton, B., & Gao, Y
. (2008). Identity, Investment, and Chinese learners of English. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 18(1), 109-120
(2001). Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. In M. Breen, (Ed.) Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159-171) Harlow, England: Pearson Education
2011). Learning Teaching: The Essential Guide to English Language Teaching. Oxford, UK. MacMillan (3rd edition)
(2007). How to teach English. Essex, UK. Pearson Longman
Boulay, B., Avramides, K., Luckin, R., Martinez-Miron, E., Rebolledo Mendez, G., Carr, A.
2010). Towards Systems that Care: A Conceptual Frameworkbased on Motivation, Metacognition and Affect. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 20 (197-229)
Norton & Gao
-motivation comes from self realization
-teaching style can influence
-students should take some responsibility
-"doers" in the classroom
Moodle: Songwriting course