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Historical Australian Events

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Kate Munday

on 7 November 2017

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Transcript of Historical Australian Events

Historical Australian Events
Aboriginal Trade
Discovery of Australia
First Fleet/Convicts
40,000 BC
Aboriginals Arrive in Australia
The first humans arrived in Australia, traveling from the South East Asia. Aboriginals were the first inhabitants. Aboriginals are believed to be a descendent of the first group of humans to venture out of Africa. Being nomadic hunters, they foraged area to area, collecting fruit, nuts, yams, insects and hunted animals. They never bothered to build or domesticate animals, reasons being because Australia didn't have the right types of plants to use for shelter and didn't have the animals to domesticate; cows, horses, goats etc. It is estimated that there was 320,000 Aboriginals split into 250 groups, each having their own territory, beliefs, traditions and language.
Starting from 1700, fisherman sailed annually from Makassar on the island of Sulwawesi (modern Indonesia) to the Arnhem Land coast. Trades started with sea cucumbers, the Makassars traded sea cucumber (trepang) from the Aboriginals (which they boiled and dried on their boats to trade with China where they used it as food and medicine.
The Makassar introduced calico, tobacco, and smoking pipes and metal; blades, knives and axes. These transformed the Aboriginals life.
Captain Cook discovered the South East of Australia, docking at Botany Bay on August 22nd 1770. Cook named the discovery 'New South Wales', claiming the east coast."In the name of his majesty King George he third took possession of the whole eastern coast by the name 'New South Wales', together with the Bays, Harbors, Rivers and Islands situated upon said coast."
The First Fleet included 11 ships which brought the first white settlers to Australia. This voyage was led by Captain Arthur Phillip, landing at Sydney Cove in January on the 26th 1788. On board there was 1420 people, 722 convicts, soldiers/guards, sailors and ship officers. 48 of these people died along the voyage. Harsh punishments were given to criminals, the punishment being transportation. Being transported meant convicts were to be sent to another British colony and work for the rest of their lives there. Heading to Australia was an outcome after the U.S. drew out the British after the Revolutionary War. Needing a new colony to settle in with convicts, they headed to Australia. Most of the convicts were English but there were also African, American and French convicts.
The Bridgehead Economy
1788 was the start of th Bridgehead Economy, starting from the settlement in Port Jackson (modern Sydney). A private had been structured to support the penalty system only. However, land grants were allowed to senior officials and freed convicts, allowing them to make trades with the goods they produced. Recognition of people who owned property and labor rights, sparked private markets for them both to begin. Eventually more and more convicts were released from prison at their ability to produce goods. Trades began the change of the economy of Australia.
The Black Line
Myall Creek Massacre
Gold Rush
First Country to Introduce the Secret Ballot
Women rights
First Contact
Australia Committing troops to the US war effort in Vietnam War
Indigenous Referendum
Multiculturalism in Australia
Port Arthur Massacre
Stolen Generation
Great Depression
Cane Toad introduced to Queensland
Immigration to Australia because of the Vietnam of the war
During the late February and early March of 1606, Wilhelm Janszoon, captain of the Dutch East India company ship, the Duyfken was the first European, after 365Km of sailing down the west coast, to be recorded setting foot in Australia and mapping parts of the Australian continent.
The relation between the Tasmanian Aboriginals and Europeans had always been inimical. By 1830 many settlers had created a virtual state of war and demanded that something had to be done.
Lieutenant Governor George Arthur responded with an order that thousands of able bodied settlers form what is now known as the 'Black Line". A chain that traveled south of Tasmania for multiple weeks to capture, displace, intimidate and relocate remaining Aboriginals. Shortly the plan failed yet Europeans were still able to take control of the region.
In the early morning of December 1838, on the 18th, seven men were hung in public at the Sydney Gaol. The British criminals were the first to be executed for massacring Aboriginals.
A group of Wirrayaraay people seeking sanctuary decided to camp on Henry Dangars proper at Myall Creek Station.
In the late afternoon of Sunday 10th, eleven convicts and ex-convicts viciously slaughtered the Wirrayaraay people, up to 28 people including children.
This incident was the only one in Australian History that white men received penalty for murdering Aboriginals.
In 1851, a man known as Edward Hargraves stumbled upon a 'grain of gold' in a water lake nearby Bathurst. Because Edward had just returned to Australia from California, he noticed so,e geological features in Australia similar to the California gold fields. This made him begin a search for gold in his homeland. After naming the location "Ophir", he reported his unearthing to local authorities, which started the Australian Gold Rush and a BOOM in the economy. A short four months later, over 1000 prospectors became residents of Ophir. Authorities had to designate ' commissioners of land" to manage the diggings and to collect license fees for each 'claim'.
Victoria and South Australia first to introduce the secret ballot. The secret ballot is the system of voting in secrecy, voters record their choice on a ballot print out and is then distributed by the government.
The system soon spread world wide; to Europe and the United States.
In 1901, Australia became an independent nation on January 1st when legislation was passed from the British Parliament, allowing the then six Australian states to govern with their own rights as part of the commonwealth of Australia.
Australia was the first country to allow women the right to vote and be elected to parliament in 1902.
Women's roles in the 19th century was still very much at home as women in Australia still had very limited legal rights. Women attending universities and searching for jobs were at a minimum. Women were portrayed as weak, emotional and indecisive and the thought of women being participants in politics was impossible.
After marriage, a women's rights would be further more limited as they were transferred to her husband, her properties and wages would also be handed to her husband. Fathers/husbands were sole guardians of the children and could remove them from their mothers and put into the care of anyone in their will.
Women were usually forced to find work paying two thirds less than a man doing the same thing.
This relates to me because it has given me the rights to vote and have more opportunities as equally as men.
Firstly starting in 1910, children of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander's were abducted by the government, churches and welfare bodies.
The purpose of these abductions was to naturally eliminate the aboriginals, raising them up in a white environment/culture, being forced to adopt white culture and forget their heritage. Many children were taken at an exceptionally young age, not even knowing where their biological families live. Many were told their family had died or abandoned them. Children were often abused both sexually and physically, and neglected.
The Great Depression began after the stock market crash on Wall Street (center of stock market in New York, US). Before the Great Depression, Australian employment was already at 10%, doubling to 21% after the Great Depression. This caused the people to lose their homes and forced to live in a makeshift dwelling with poor heating and sanitation. Many people were manipulated into all sorts of tricks and expediencies for survival. Fathers left home and became workers on the tracks, grown sons sat at the kitchen table studying horses so the knew how to bet, daughters even attempting minor prostitution. Australia lost their political confidence and in their ability to govern.
Introduced in Queensland to help with can farms, the cane toad is Australia's best known pest.
The introduction of cane toads was to help with the farming of sugar canes, problem being that the larvae of native beetles were eating the roots of the sugar canes, commonly known as cane beetles.
After multiple experiments to control the cane beetles, Reginald Mungomery, the BSES entomologist of controlling the cane beetles got inspired by reports from Hawaii that Puerto Rico had introduced the toad to control the beetles.
Traveling to Hawaii in June f 1935, he brought back a breeding sample to Gordanvale, near Cairns. By August he toads had bred successfully and 2,400 were released in the area.
Cane toads became more a pest as it made no remarkable change on cane beetle problems. It's poison has decreased the population of multiple native predators.
Personally from Queensland, 100km south of Cairns, Innisfail, I have encounted multiple cane toads.
The first Australian team arriving in South Vietnam of July and August was the beginning f Australia's involvement in he Vietnam War.
Almost 60,000 Australians, including ground troops, air force and navy personnel served in the Vietnam War; 521 deaths and over 3,000 were wounded.
The greatest social and political dissent in Australia since the conscription referendums of the first world war was an outcome of the Vietnam War.
Soldiers had a belligerent welcoming back home.
After ten years of campaigning, in March, a referendum was held on Indigenous recognition in the Australian Constitution.
Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders were classified and treated as second hand citizens. The poll was to make Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders a full Australian citizen. Almost 91% of the peoples vote was to amend the situation.
The constitution was officially changed on August 10th 1967.
After ten years of hard working Aboriginal activist, they became full time citizens.
In 1973, Australia become multicultural, meaning people of all races, not just English could enter Australia and be a citizen. This allowed a lot of Asians to migrate to Australia after the wars.
my family were some of those people who migrated due to the war
On April 28th of 1996, a young Hobart man who had bought a semi-automatic rifle without a license murdered 35 people and injured another 18 in Port Arthur, a popular tourist attraction as convict settlement occurred there.
John Howard within four months orchestrated a tighter firearm law, some of those laws, now some of the strictest.
From 1970 and onwards after the Vietnam War, communists gained control of Vietnam, leaving thousands of people terrified of the government. By 1978, the first boats reached Darwin.
In 1979, Australian immigration officers chose refugees from refugee camps in Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.
My family was part of the Vietnam war or secret war (because Laos Hmong soldiers were majorly 10 years old. Running away from the war, they landed in a refugee camp in Thailand and migrated to Australia. Living in Australia now is because of my family's migration to this chosen country after the Vietnam War.
Pleadar Thaow
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