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T-cell Communication Project
Transcript of T-cell Communication Project
The ligand is a peptide antigen. Antigens are (usually) proteins located on the surface of fungi, viruses, bacteria, and cells. Antigens could also be foreign substances.
Basics of Cell Transduction Pathway:
Type of Receptor:
A receptor for a T-cell is a MHC protein molecule.
Specifics of Cellular response:
T cells can detect the presence of an intracellular pathogen because infected cells display fragments derived from the pathogen's proteins on their surface. These foreign peptides are delivered to the cell surface by specialized host-cell glycoproteins. These are encoded in a large cluster of genes called the major histocompatibility complex. The recognition of an antigen as a small peptide fragment bound to an MHC molecule displayed at the cell surface is one of the most distinctive features of T cells.
Specifics of Organismal Response:
Cell Signaling Pathway
Signal Pathway Involved:
Specifics of Cellular and Organismal Response:
T-cell Communication Project
Basics of T-Cell
A t-cell is a type of white blood cell that circulates around our bodies, scanning for cellular abnormalities and infections. T-cells are essential for human immunity. The devastating effects of a lower than normal number of just one type of T-cell are all too evident in HIV/AIDS. There are several different kinds of T-cell; broadly speaking they can be divided into two different types, killer T-cells and helper T-cells. Killer T-cells have ‘X-ray vision’ as they are able to see inside our bodies' own cells simply by scanning their surface. This mechanism allows killer T-cells to hunt down and destroy cells that are infected with germs or that have become cancerous. The other main type of T-cells are called helper T-cells. Helper T-cells orchestrate an immune response and play important roles in all arms of immunity.
1) the binding of a signaling molecule causes receptor polypeptides to come together, forming a dimer (dimerization)
2) tyrosine kinase regions are activated
3) an ATP molecule’s phosphate is added to each tyrosine
4) specific relay proteins (which are inactive ) are activated as they bind to a tyrosine undergoing change in shape
5) each protein triggers a transduction pathway leading to a cellular response
T-cells are part of the immune systems of vertebrates. They identify and destroy specific pathogens that enter the body. During development in the thymus, T-cells are taught to discriminate between the organism’s own cells and foreign substances. This prevents the T-cells from destroying the organism’s own tissues. There are two types of t cells: killer T-cells and helper T-cells. Helper T-cells activate killer T-cells. Killer T-cells attack cells or substances that have been tagged by the immune system.
T Cells contribute to the immune defense system in two ways: by directing or regulating immune responses, which are helper T Cells, or directly attacking infected/cancerous cells, which are killer T Cells.
There are also two subcategories of killer T Cells. and NK T Cells, or Natural Killer T Cells have granules filled with potent chemicals. They bind and kill their target cell on contact
by releasing a lethal burst of chemicals. CTL Cells do the same, but they have MHC antigens, which are proteins that recognize foreign cells.
Without killer T Cells, the body may acquire certain autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes or cancer. Without helper T Cells, the rate at which immune responses travel will be much slower and the accuracy of the responses will decrease. A low T-cell count is also an indicator of HIV/AIDS.
Current Direction of Research:
Scientists are trying to discover methods to try to control the timing and the release of the chemical weapons used by NK T Cells, in order to modify immune responses in ways that can benefit patients.