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Assessment. Errors and error correction in oral and written modes. Testing.

EFL Methodology
by

Antonio Gómez Vélez

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Assessment. Errors and error correction in oral and written modes. Testing.

Assessment. Errors and error correction in oral and written modes. Testing.
Antonio Gómez Vélez
November 2014
Assessment
Testing and assessing are NOT synoymous terms.
TESTS are prepared administrative procedures that occur at identified times in a curriculum when learners must show all their faculties to offer good performance, knowing that their responses are being measured and evaluated.
ASSESSMENT is an ongoing process that encompasses a much wider domain. A good teacher never ceases to assess students, whether those assessments are incidental or intended.
Use of assessment to make decisions in six areas of language learning:
Make decisions relative to screening and identification.
Make decisions about placement.
Reclassify learners within a program.
Monitor student progress in order to make decisions about instruction.
Inform the process of program evaluation.
Help teachers focus on learner outcomes and take joint responsibility for learner progress.
Two kinds of assessment
SUMMATIVE
FORMATIVE
SUMMATIVE
VS
FORMATIVE

SUMMATIVE
It is given at the end of a learning period.
The purpose of summative assessment is to measure competency.
Teachers use summative assessment for giving grades and making determinations about what has been learned.
Students use summative assessments to gauge their progress towards a specific goal.
FORMATIVE
It is ongoing and given during the process of learning.
The purpose of formative assessment is to improve instruction .
Teachers use formative assessments to plan for and modify instruction.
Students use formative assessment to self-monitor or self-assess their understanding of new concepts or development of new skills.
Compulsory Curriculum for
Secondary Education in Extremadura
After giving a unit test, very few students understood the concepts that were taught
Why aren’t students mastering the concepts?
Why didn’t I recognize the problems that students were having with the material before we were finished working with the materials and concepts and before the test?
What can I do to make the changes necessary to remedy this situation?
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Compulsory curriculum
It is critical that teachers develop skills with formative assessment
It has been noted that the most common practice of formative assessment is the general question–no response model
It does not provide the teacher or the students with a way to truly check for understanding
Formative Assessments Provide:

Insight on students' strengths and conceptual errors in relation to specific course concepts.
Guidance to improve student understanding.
A means of monitoring progress in learning.
Diagnostic information concerning students' errors in understanding.
A non-threatening environment to identify and correct problems in learning and instruction.
Feedback to the instructor concerning the effectiveness of instructional activities.
STRATEGIES FOR
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

With English language learners, teachers tend to speak more while students speak less
Research shows high-achieving students speak more in the classroom than low-achieving students
Teachers should be familiar with the ways in which they encourage student talk in the classroom
RETELLING
A strategy to increase student talk in the classroom and promote critical thinking through the guided analysis of text.
The purpose of retelling is to help students analyze a text and give them an opportunity to use oral language to recreate a text or talk about an experience in their own words.
It is important to provide scaffolding, the support students need to carry out the task successfully: formula.
Language learners may need some additional scaffolding beyond the simple formula: rubrics.
Retelling can also be used with types of informational texts.
QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
One of the models for effective questioning most useful in working with teachers is known as QUILT (questioning understanding to improve learning and thinking).
In order to interpret demands on cognition, we use the six levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy and think of questions in terms of the demand on cognition associated with each level.
Guidelines:
1.Provide wait time for students.
2.Avoid answering your own questions.
3.Develop strategies for responding to incorrect answers.
4.Develop a system for calling on students.
5.Use response practices that promote student involvement.
ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
It is an alternative to the traditional forms of assessment.
Alternative assessments can give language learners an opportunity to demonstrate what they know about language and content based on criteria that have been set up in advance of the assessment.
Learners can get involved in the evaluation of their own work, increasing motivation.
Learners can show, demonstrate, or display what they have learned to their teachers, peers, or family members and can explain why they were evaluated in the way they were.
Alternative assessment is based on activities that represent instructional activities or activities from real-life settings.
TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
Constructed Responses.
Experiments/Demonstrations.
Observations.
Oral Interviews.
Portfolios assessment:
is the use of records of a student’s work over time and in a variety of modes to show the depth, breadth, and development of the student’s abilities;
is the purposeful and systematic collection of student work that reflects accomplishment relative to specific instructional goals or objectives;
can be used as an approach for combining
the information from both alternative and standardized assessments;
has as key elements student reflection, assessment, and self-monitoring.
Projects.
Retelling.
Writing Samples.
ERRORS
Which of these two statements do you most agree with?
Student errors are evidence that learning has not taken place.
Students errors are evidence that learning is taking place.
Student errors are evidence that progress is being made.
In dealing with errors, teachers
have looked for correction techniques
that help students to make their own corrections.
Errors - Mistakes
A mistake is a slip of the tongue or the pen.
When students make errors they might:
believe what he/she is saying or writing is correct.
not know what the correct form should be.
know what the correct form should be, but not able to get it right.
Important!
Aim of the activity
to improve learners' accurate use of English
correction may be helpful
to encourage fluency
interruptions and corrections might get in the way of the work
Teacher decisions when working with oral errors in class
Decision 2
Are errors always bad?
At least the students are trying.
By making errors learners are experimenting.
By noting the errors that the students make you can see what needs focusing on in the future lessons.
Decision 2 (II)
How can you anticipate and avoid errors?
Familiarize yourself with all aspects of an item of language you are focusing on.
Familiarize yourself with the typical grammatical, lexical and pronunciation problems associated with Spanish-speakers students.
Decision 3 (II)
When to correct?
Decision 4
Who corrects? (II)
Self correction
give the students
the chance to correct themselves
sometimes they need
some assistance
Decision 4
Who corrects (I)
Decision 4
Who corrects? (III)
Student-student
correction
advantage
involving all the students;
making the learning more co-operative;
reducing student dependence on the teacher;
increasing the amount of students listen to each other;
giving the better students something to do.
Decision 4
Who corrects? (IV)
Teacher correction
get the student who made the error to say the original version in its original context.
Decision 5
Techniques (I)
Steps
Indicate that an error has been made.
Invite correction or help the student
towards a correction.
Decision 5
Techniques (II)
Decision 5
Techniques (III)
Decision 5
Techniques (IV)
Decision 5
Techniques (V)
Student-student correction technique
Correcting written work
Correcting written work
Correcting written work
TESTING?
TESTS
ARE NOT
COMPULSORY
How testing helps students learning English?
Tests can help create positive attitudes toward your class.
Tests can help them master the language.
sense of accomplishment
awareness of your objectives and areas of emphasis
require them to study hard,
showing them where they need to improve
How testing helps teachers of English
Diagnosis of our own efforts as well as of those of our students
Are my lessons on the right level?
Am I aiming my instruction too low or too high?
Am I teaching some skills effectively but other less effectively?
What areas do we need work on?
Which points need reviewing?
Should I spend more (or less) time on this material wit next year's students?
Types of tests
Placement tests.
Diagnostic tests.
Progress or achievement tests.
Proficiency tests.
Portfolio assessment.
Characteristics of a good test
Validity

It produces similar results to some other measure.
There is validity in the way it is marked.
Reliability

Making the test instructions absolutely clear.
The score doesn't depend on who is marking it.
Types of test item
Direct test items
It asks candidates to perform the communicative skill which is being tested.
They try to as much real-life language use as possible.
Indirect test items
They measure a student's knowledge and ability through receptive and productive skills.
They test students through more controlled items.
Indirect test item types
Multiple-choice questions.
Cloze procedures
Transformation and paraphrase.
Sentence re-ordering.
Direct test item types
Create a 'level playing field'
Replicate real-life interaction
Writing tests
Assess the test situation.
Decide what to test.
Balance the elements.
Weight the scores.
Make the test work.
Marking tests
Training
More than one scorer
Global assessment scales
Analytic profiles
Scoring and interacting during oral tests
Teaching for tests
'Washback' effect
teaching becomes dominated by the test
Modern tests are grounded far more in mainstream
classroom activities and methodologies.
Many teachers find teaching exam classes to be satisfying
in that where students perceive a clear sense of purpose
Teachers must walk a fine line between good exam preparation
and not being swept away by the washback effect.
Teaching for tests (II)
What we can do

Train for test types.
Discuss general exam skills.
Do practice tests.
Have fun.
Ignore the test.
Guidelines for Enhancing Formative Assessments:

Formative assessments must directly relate to learning objectives and instructional activities.
Be sure that all activities are purposeful and goal-directed.
Effective formative assessments must provide feedback.
To encourage active participation, formative assessments must be relevant and engaging.
Both the formative assessment and accompanying feedback must be timely to course activities, theories, and concepts.
To be most effective, formative assessments must be ongoing.
Formative assessment techniques
Observation.
Questioning.
Discussion / oral exchange.
Graphic organizers.
Peer/self assessments.
Practice presentations.
RUBRICS
Typically used with assessments that are subjective (presentations, papers, discussions, portfolios, essays, projects)
Why use rubrics?
• Rubrics make the instructor’s expectations clear to the students
• Rubrics show students how to meet the instructor’s expectations.
• Rubrics help students evaluate the quality of their own work.
• Rubrics identify the specific elements an instructor uses to differentiate between the qualities of performances.
• If more than one person is evaluating the performance, it improves the consistency and objectivity (standardization) of grading.
Steps to create a rubric
1. Identify the dimensions/tasks comprising the performance.
2. Identify the potential gradations of quality.
3. Assign a point value to each gradation, and a total point value for the assessment.
4. Identify the criteria for each level of quality within a dimension/task.
5. Create the rubric table.
Decision 3
When to correct
Options:
Immediately.
After a few minutes.
At the end of the activity.
Later in the lesson.
At the end of the lesson.
In the next lesson.
Later in the course.
Never.
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