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Transcript of Shakespeare
London in the 16th Century
Gender Roles in the 16th Century
Marriage & Weddings in the 16th Century
Didn’t marry for love
Women were considered slightly more important than cattle
Exciting bonuses to the wedded state:
Run your own home
Couldn't be accused witchcraft
Theater/Drama in Elizabethan Times
Drama flourished during Elizabethan era
Popular and brought in money
Performed mostly in London, but also traveling companies
Globe Theatre is the most well-known of all the stages
Associated with Shakespeare
Constructed in 1599
Open-air amphitheater which held 3,000 people
Garrett Catalana, Amanda Lawn, Haley Williams & Erin Galway
Shakespeare in the 16th century
Married for social standing
Parents chose for children
Most couples don't meet till wedding day
Picture may be given to men
Boys wed at 14, Girls at 12
Marriage begins with it
Two people join hands & exchange rings
Contract made that includes the bride's dowry, combining of cash & property to man
seal the contract with a kiss & signatures
The Big Day
Lucky to have before noon
Brides not expected to wear white
Wedding dresses became part of a woman's ordinary wardrobe after wedding
Bride's father pays
Bride moves into groom's house after
Worn on right finger
Believed that the vein in the ring finger led to the heart
Rich, darker colors
Large, overflowing & hand tied
Included wheat which symbolized fertility & various herbs which represented health and destiny
Guests brought cakes that were then stacked on top of each other
Bride and groom tried to kiss over the top without toppling them over
Noisy with musicians, laughter & bawdy jokes
Groom is not part of the procession, meets the bride either at the side door of church or at the altar
All enter the church at once & stand through the ritual
Since the church is open, anyone can attend
Next documented event in his life
Married Anne Hathaway in the small English town of Grafton
Anne was pregnant prior to the marriage
Their intent to marry had to be announced at church three times
Groundlings, or commoners, stood in dirt yard for one penny
Ones who paid more sat in galleries or boxes
Illegal for women to act, adolescent boys played roles of women
Asides used in Shakespeare’s plays
directly said to audience, dramatic irony, often comedic
Born in Warwickshire in 1564
Records of his first plays began to appear in 1594
Histories and comedies
A large part of his life was not documented
Died in 1616
Some people think Shakespeare was a fraud
None of his original manuscripts exist
His works had more than 30,000 different words
157 million pages referring to him on Google (132 million for God)
He has spelled his name Shakespe, Shakspe, Shakspere & Shakespear
Was a Catholic even though it was illegal
- Golden Age of Literature & the Heart of England
- Reflected all the vibrant qualities of the Elizabethan Age
- Lively, bustling city
- Population grew quickly
- International trade center
- Diseases & natural disasters were at high numbers
- Popular destination for travelers
- Theater was popular to all social classes (mostly to the upper class)
-Use of costumes was rare, usually just wore ordinary clothing
-Minimal scenery used, but created by dialogue and imagined by audience
-Asides used in Shakespeare’s plays
-Personally said to audience, often comedic, dramatic irony
-Scenery of Globe Theatre included a trapdoor and cannon
-Cannon caused fire, was rebuilt in 1614
-English Parliament closed theater productions in 1642
-Site of the old Globe was rediscovered in the 20th century and was again rebuilt, can be visited today
Theaters & Drama Cont.
Not allowed in certain professions (doctors, lawyers, teachers)
If employed, they were not paid a lot & skills were not highly needed
Men could employ wives & daughters
If husband died, wife carried on trade
Worked mostly doing:
Spinning cloth, tailors, etc.
Most common were:
Domestic servant, midwife & apothecaries
Men needed help of the women for success of business or farm
A Woman's Work at Home
Bake & created essential foods
Make candles, soap, spun wool, & linen
Worked on the farm
Did the normal house keeping tasks
Took care of children
Did not attend school normally if in the lower class
Both upper & lower class believed girls should work & not play
Discipline was harsh
Upper class - cotton or silk
Lower class - wool or linen
Seen as beautiful when pale
If sunburned, you were seen as poor
Men in the 16th Century
Alchin, Linda. "Elizabethan Wedding Customs." Elizabethan Wedding Customs. William Shakespeare Info, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2005.
---Alchin, Linda. "Elizabethan Women." Elizabethan Women. N.p., 16 May 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Drummond, Ree. "Twenty Interesting Things About Shakespeare." Pioneer Woman Homeschooling Ree Drummond. N.p., 7 June 2010. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
"Females in the 16th and 21st Century: Gender Perception in Literature." Serendip Studio. N.p., 20 Apr. 2007. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
"Feminism in Literature Essay - Women in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries." Enotes.com. Enotes.com, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
History.com Staff. "10 Things You Didn’t Know About William Shakespeare." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 16 July 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
Lambert, Tim. "Women in the 16th Century." Women in the 16th Century. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Nauert, Charles G. "Women." Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Historical Dictionary of Renaissance, 2004. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Petitt, Leann. "A Look at Male Gender Roles in Shakespeare’s Renaissance." A Look at Male Gender Roles in Shakespeare’s Renaissance. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Pressley, J.M. "Elizabethan England." Elizabethan England. The Shakespeare Resource Center, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Rose, Maggie. "More Wedding Customs." Life in Elizabethan England 62:. N.p., 22 Mar. 208. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.
"The Old Globe Theater History." The Old Globe Theater History. N.p., 2005. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.
Tomecek, Jan. "Everyday Living." The Elizabethan Age. N.p., Aug. 2001. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
"William Shakespeare." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
"Women." History of Women. Le Poulet Gauche, 1 Jan. 2004. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
"25 Amazing and Weird Facts About William Shakespeare." Amazing and Weird. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
Work & income for family
"Owned" their wives
Older than wife most of the time (Othello)
Attended some sort of schooling depending on class & money
Could own land & businesses
Upper class: mills, factories, etc.
Lower class: farmers, laborers, etc.
Could be rulers
Fought in military
Crying the Banns
Announcing the Marriage:
- Engagement had to be announced three times in the church
- if the couple attends different church’s it is announced at both churches
- any marriage not pronounced beforehand is considered illegal
- no formal invitations to weddings
- news spread by telling friends and relatives