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The Atomic Model

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Allie Factor

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of The Atomic Model

The Atomic Model
Democritus
Neils Bohr
Louis De Broglie
Robert Millikan
Werner Heisenberg
Erwin Schrodinger
Ernest Rutherford
Eugen Goldstein
J.J. Thomson
James Chadwick
Albert Einstein
Wolfgand Pauli
Hantaro Nagaoka
Ludwig Boltzmann
Max Born
Richard Feynman
Max Plank
John Dalton
The Origin of Atomic Theory (Atoma)
*Knew everything was made of matter
*Named the atom after "atomas," a Greek word meaning uncuttable
*First proposed model of the atom
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Did experiments to prove atoms to move like waves/particle duality (or the de Broglie hypothesis)
*Discovered stable and unstable waves
*Built on Einsteins work, then Schrodinger used his work
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Measured the charge of the electron
*Use water to successfully perform these experiments
*Worked on the "photoelectric effect" after Einstein (tried to prove him wrong)
Planetary Model
*Came up with atoms operating rules:
1) Electrons can orbit only at certain allowed distances from the nucleus
2) Atoms radiate energy when an electron jumps from a higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy orbit. Also an atom absorbs energy when an electron gets boosted from a low-energy orbit to a high energy orbit.
*Worked with Arnold Somerfeld to show the electron orbit in perfect circles around the nucleus
*Worked with Quantum Theory
Quantum Mechanical Model
Solid Sphere Model (Billard Ball)
*Had the idea that matter is made up of atoms
*Discovered that atoms of different elements combine in whole ratios to form chemical compounds ("little balls" form together in different compounds to make different things)
*First experiments that showed that matter was made of tiny little particles
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Mathematician like Schrodinger (key creators of quantum mechanics)
* "Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle": No experiment can measure the position and momentum of a quantum particle simultaneously
Planetary Model
*First to defend a Saturnian Model - Bohr's Model (developed early planetary model)
*Later Rutherford and Bohr proved Nagaoka correct
*Rejected Plum Pudding Model (J. J. Thomson)
*His model had a large nucleus with electrons revolving around the nucleus help by electrostatic forces
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Worked with Quanta Mechanics
*Researched the mathematics of the wave function, meaning that the movement within the atom is in waves
*Along with Heisenberg, formulated matrix mechanics then probability density function (used in Schrodinger equation)
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Measured energy in discrete units
*Energy units were named quanta (or a photon)
*Introduced Quantum Theory
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Electrons moved like hyper active flies around the nucleus, sketching out designs over time (orbital)
*"psi" was the name he gave to his wave mechanics
*Formulated the "wave equation" (Schrodinger Equation: Describes how the quantum state of a system changes with time)
*Built on de Broglies work
Nuclear/Modern Model
Plum Pudding Model
*Realized that there needs to be an opposite charge
*Used Rays: Cathode Rays are the electrons, Canal Rays are the unknown opposite charge
*Set people on their search for an opposite charge
*Developed statistical mechanics, explaining and predicting how properties of atoms affect the physical properties of matter
*Significantly contributed to the kinect theory
*Developed and contributed to scientific equations about the atom
*Showed that molecule's average energy of motion is the same in each direction
Quantum Mechanical Model
*wrote "photoelectric effect"
*Explained how light absorption can release electrons
*Worked on Quantum Theory
*Created the Theory Of Relatively
*Work was basis of nuclear energy
Plum Pudding Model
*Discovered the electron
*Said electrons have a negative charge, figured matter had a positive charge
*Challenged Dalton's idea of the indivisibility of an atom (because they are made of electrons, could be divided)
*Thought electrons were stuck inside (like blueberry's in a a muffin)
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Worked with Quantum electrodynamics
*Showed mathematics about interacting particles
*Looked at particles behavior
*Watched interactions between light and matter
*Contributed path integral formulation and Feynmann Diagrams
Quantum Mechanical Model
*Electron spins while orbits around nucleus
*"Pauli's Exclusive Principle": If an electron has a certain set of quantum numbers, then no other electron can have that same set of quantum numbers
*Worked in Quantum Mechanics field with Bohr and Hiesenberg
*Worked with Hydrogen Atom
(460BC- 370BC)
Works Cited
https://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi (Google Images)
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/millikan.html (Purdue Website)
http://www.nndb.com/people/728/000099431/ (NNDB.com)
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/goldstein.html (Purdue Website)
http://www.japanese-greatest.com/technology/atomic-model.html (Worlds Greatest Japanese)
http://www.nndb.com/people/348/000179808/ (NNDB.com)
http://www.nndb.com/people/584/000026506/ (NNDB.com)
http://www.nobeliefs.com/atom/htm (Website You Gave Us)
(1808)
(1886)
(1871)
(1897)
(1897)
(1900)
(1905)
(1908-1917)
(1911)
(1913)
(1924)
(1924)
(1926)
(1925-1927)
(1932)
*Worked under Rutherford and discovered the proton
*Proved: the proton real, and elementary particle without any electrical charge, and a fundamental building block to the nucleus
*Discovered the neutron within the nucleus with the proton
(1926)
(1940s-1960s)
*Created theory of the structure of the atom, discovered the nucleus of the atom
*Said that opposite charges attract
*Discovered protons (protons are 1,836 times more heavy) - they are the opposite charge to the electron
*Protons positioned in nucleus
(no expirement)
(no experiment)
(no experiment)
Full transcript