**The Atomic Model**

**Democritus**

**Neils Bohr**

**Louis De Broglie**

**Robert Millikan**

**Werner Heisenberg**

**Erwin Schrodinger**

**Ernest Rutherford**

**Eugen Goldstein**

**J.J. Thomson**

**James Chadwick**

Albert Einstein

**Wolfgand Pauli**

**Hantaro Nagaoka**

**Ludwig Boltzmann**

**Max Born**

**Richard Feynman**

**Max Plank**

**John Dalton**

The Origin of Atomic Theory (Atoma)

*Knew everything was made of matter

*Named the atom after "atomas," a Greek word meaning uncuttable

*First proposed model of the atom

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Did experiments to prove atoms to move like waves/particle duality (or the de Broglie hypothesis)

*Discovered stable and unstable waves

*Built on Einsteins work, then Schrodinger used his work

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Measured the charge of the electron

*Use water to successfully perform these experiments

*Worked on the "photoelectric effect" after Einstein (tried to prove him wrong)

Planetary Model

*Came up with atoms operating rules:

1) Electrons can orbit only at certain allowed distances from the nucleus

2) Atoms radiate energy when an electron jumps from a higher-energy orbit to a lower-energy orbit. Also an atom absorbs energy when an electron gets boosted from a low-energy orbit to a high energy orbit.

*Worked with Arnold Somerfeld to show the electron orbit in perfect circles around the nucleus

*Worked with Quantum Theory

Quantum Mechanical Model

Solid Sphere Model (Billard Ball)

*Had the idea that matter is made up of atoms

*Discovered that atoms of different elements combine in whole ratios to form chemical compounds ("little balls" form together in different compounds to make different things)

*First experiments that showed that matter was made of tiny little particles

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Mathematician like Schrodinger (key creators of quantum mechanics)

* "Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle": No experiment can measure the position and momentum of a quantum particle simultaneously

Planetary Model

*First to defend a Saturnian Model - Bohr's Model (developed early planetary model)

*Later Rutherford and Bohr proved Nagaoka correct

*Rejected Plum Pudding Model (J. J. Thomson)

*His model had a large nucleus with electrons revolving around the nucleus help by electrostatic forces

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Worked with Quanta Mechanics

*Researched the mathematics of the wave function, meaning that the movement within the atom is in waves

*Along with Heisenberg, formulated matrix mechanics then probability density function (used in Schrodinger equation)

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Measured energy in discrete units

*Energy units were named quanta (or a photon)

*Introduced Quantum Theory

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Electrons moved like hyper active flies around the nucleus, sketching out designs over time (orbital)

*"psi" was the name he gave to his wave mechanics

*Formulated the "wave equation" (Schrodinger Equation: Describes how the quantum state of a system changes with time)

*Built on de Broglies work

Nuclear/Modern Model

Plum Pudding Model

*Realized that there needs to be an opposite charge

*Used Rays: Cathode Rays are the electrons, Canal Rays are the unknown opposite charge

*Set people on their search for an opposite charge

*Developed statistical mechanics, explaining and predicting how properties of atoms affect the physical properties of matter

*Significantly contributed to the kinect theory

*Developed and contributed to scientific equations about the atom

*Showed that molecule's average energy of motion is the same in each direction

Quantum Mechanical Model

*wrote "photoelectric effect"

*Explained how light absorption can release electrons

*Worked on Quantum Theory

*Created the Theory Of Relatively

*Work was basis of nuclear energy

Plum Pudding Model

*Discovered the electron

*Said electrons have a negative charge, figured matter had a positive charge

*Challenged Dalton's idea of the indivisibility of an atom (because they are made of electrons, could be divided)

*Thought electrons were stuck inside (like blueberry's in a a muffin)

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Worked with Quantum electrodynamics

*Showed mathematics about interacting particles

*Looked at particles behavior

*Watched interactions between light and matter

*Contributed path integral formulation and Feynmann Diagrams

Quantum Mechanical Model

*Electron spins while orbits around nucleus

*"Pauli's Exclusive Principle": If an electron has a certain set of quantum numbers, then no other electron can have that same set of quantum numbers

*Worked in Quantum Mechanics field with Bohr and Hiesenberg

*Worked with Hydrogen Atom

(460BC- 370BC)

Works Cited

https://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi (Google Images)

http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/millikan.html (Purdue Website)

http://www.nndb.com/people/728/000099431/ (NNDB.com)

http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/goldstein.html (Purdue Website)

http://www.japanese-greatest.com/technology/atomic-model.html (Worlds Greatest Japanese)

http://www.nndb.com/people/348/000179808/ (NNDB.com)

http://www.nndb.com/people/584/000026506/ (NNDB.com)

http://www.nobeliefs.com/atom/htm (Website You Gave Us)

(1808)

(1886)

(1871)

(1897)

(1897)

(1900)

(1905)

(1908-1917)

(1911)

(1913)

(1924)

(1924)

(1926)

(1925-1927)

(1932)

*Worked under Rutherford and discovered the proton

*Proved: the proton real, and elementary particle without any electrical charge, and a fundamental building block to the nucleus

*Discovered the neutron within the nucleus with the proton

(1926)

(1940s-1960s)

*Created theory of the structure of the atom, discovered the nucleus of the atom

*Said that opposite charges attract

*Discovered protons (protons are 1,836 times more heavy) - they are the opposite charge to the electron

*Protons positioned in nucleus

(no expirement)

(no experiment)

(no experiment)