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AP Euro 2015

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Kat Katsaros

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Transcript of AP Euro 2015

AP Euro 2015
Sorry There Are Like 83 Slides
Pave Your Own Path In Life
The Renaissance
"Rebirth"
We Are Never(ever) Getting Back Together
The Reformation
A War That Lasted Thirty Years
The Thirty Years War
Origins
The Renaissance began in present-day Italy, most likely because of the abundant trade, economic prosperity, and close proximity to Greece and Rome.
Ideologies
Advances
Johannes Guttemburg's printing press made books more accessible to average people, therefore advancing education.
New artistic techniques, such as chiaroscuro (contrast between light and dark) and linear perspective made paintings more realistic.
Humanism

Let's get back to the basics
Individualism
Take Credit For Your Own Work
Secularism
Let's Focus On Here And Now
People began to look back to ancient texts and thinkers such Aristotle to understand human nature
emphasized human's interests and capabilities
Martin Luther
The Man That Started It All
The New Religions
I Said Looove Is My Religion
Lutheranism
Calvinism
Anabaptism
You've Got A Friend In Me
Catholic Reformation/Counter Reformation
Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe
Stressed personality and uniqueness
called for the development of full potential
People stopped crediting god for all their accomplishments
People became more concerned with material objects and less concerned with getting to heaven
Books such as
The Decameron
by Giovanni Boccaccio emphasized the secular spirit
Problems With The Church
Clerics often could not read and would mumble sermons
Clerics would hold multiple offices, and in some cases never visit any of them (pluralism)
The church sold indulgences, which enabled people to pay money to clear their past, future, or deceased family member's sins
We Can Just Let That Slide...
Luther was troubled by the idea of indulgences, which prompted him to write The Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, which were pinned to the door of the church at Wittenburg Castle on October 31, 1517.
Luther denied the infallibility of the pope in public, to which the papacy responded with a letter demanding that he recant and appear before the Diet of Worms.
Charles V declared him an outlaw, but Duke Frederick of Saxony backed him.
Luther continued to work on the theological proponents of Lutheranism between 1520 and 1530
Salvation comes from faith alone
Religious authority is held in the Bible
The church is comprised of the entire community of Christian followers
All forms of Christian lives are equal
Every person should serve to his or her individual calling
Forget Everything Else, Just Have Faith
John Calvin decided that it was his calling to reform the church and the city of Geneva, so he founded Calvinism.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
was published in 1536.
Calvinists believed in predestination, or the principle that god has already chosen who was to be saved and that salvation cannot be worked for or achieved. Only 100,000 people were believed to be allowed into heaven.
The rich and successful people were viewed as more likely to be saved, so naturally Calvinism tended to appeal to the more fortunate.
No, You Can't Sit With Us
Anabaptists believed that only adults could make choices about their religion. Children were not baptized under the claim that there was no scriptural basis for it.
Anabaptists were all pacifists, and never tried to force their faith on anyone.
Women were admitted into the ministry.
King Henry VIII
What Happened To All My Wives?
Basically, King Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine, the pope said no, and he created the Church of England. The end.
The Council of Trent met between 1545 and 1563 to reform the Catholic church and reconcile with the protestants. They set guidelines that required clerics to reside in their own dioceses, go through training, give up concubines, and cease the sale of indulgences.
The Tridentine decree Tametsi required marriage vows to be made before witnesses.
The Jesuits and the Ursulines, founded by Ignatius Loyola and Angela Merici respectively, were established to combat ignorance and restore the Catholic church's prestige.
Catholic League VS Protestant Union
The Defenestration of Prague, or the hurling of the Bohemian King Ferdinand out of his castle into a pile of horse crap, marked the beginning of the Thirty Years War.
Phase 1: The Bohemian Phase
Civil war in Bohemia Between Catholics and Protestants.
Ferdinand (Catholic) beat Frederick (Protestant) at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. Bohemia was completely Catholic within 10 years.
Phase 2: The Danish Phase
The Phase That Was In Bohemia
Christian IV of Denmark attempted to lead the protestants, but only saw more catholic victories.
Albert of Wallenstein scored many victories for the Catholics, but was so self-centered that his quarrels with the Catholic League divided their forces.
Edict of Restitution (1629)- Only Catholics and Lutherans could practice their faith.
We Should Look Into New Leadership
Phase 3: The Swedish Phase
Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus stepped in to support the Protestants. He won impressive victories in Breitenfeld and Lutzen, despite dying during the latter.
His death, followed by defeat at Nordlingen caused the French to enter the war.
Finally, A Victory For The Protestants
Phase 4: The French phase (International Phase)
Cardinal Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent aid to Sweden and Germany.
War lasted so long because there was insufficient funding on both sides.
October 1648- Peace of Westphalia was signed. It recognized authority of sovereign German princes and Habsburg power was restricted. Calvinism was allowed to be practised along with Lutheranism and Catholicism.
Well That Took Way Too Long
Absolutism
Absolutist rulers ruled by divine right, which meant that they were chosen by god.
Absolute monarchs controlled everything, including religion, art, politics, and the economy.
While absolutism might have been a more efficient form of government, absolutist leaders often made choices that benefited themselves rather than the country.
Absolute monarchs sought to become the embodiment of the state. (i.e. "L'etat, c'est moi!"{" I am the state"}~ Louis XIV)
You Will Do What I Say!
Constitutionalism
Constitutionalism is the limit of the government/monarchy by law
Constitutionalism differs from democracy in that not every citizen is granted the right to vote. Most men were not granted voting rights until the 19th century, and women were forced to wait until the 20th.
During the reign of Charles II, anyone who refused to accept Eucharist of the Church of England could not vote, hold public office, teach or attend university.
We're Close To Being A Democracy
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
New World Views And Science-y Stuff
The Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
Nicolaus Copernicus
Copernicus revisited the Grecian hypothesis of a heliocentric universe, and published it in On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
A major flaw in his works was his implication that the stars were at rest .
His theories were attacked by Protestants among other religious leaders.
Tycho Brahe
Brahe was a leading astronomer in Denmark who drew a detailed drawing of the new star in 1572.
He built the most sophisticated observatory of his time with grants from the king of Denmark.
He had a limited knowledge of math, which prevented him from making sense of the enormous amount of data he collected.
Johannes Kepler
Kepler believed that the universe was a balance between mathematical relationships and the heavenly bodies.
He formulated the three laws of heavenly motion (elliptical planetary orbits, staggered speed of orbits, and time per revolution is relative to the distance from the sun.
Galileo Galilei
Galilei contributed to the elaboration of the experimental method.
His acceleration experiment proved that a uniform force, such as gravity, created uniform acceleration
Formulated the law of inertia (objects keep doing what they're doing unless acted upon by an outside force.
Discovered the first four moons of Jupiter.
Discovered the moon had craters
Wrote
Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
, which defended Copernicus' findings.
Isaac Newton
Newton loved alchemy
Published his Principia in 1687
Combined Galileo, Copernicus, and Kepler's theories into the law of universal gravitation. This stated that every body in the universe attracted every other body in the universe.
Rene Descartes
Created Cartesian Dualism, which reduced all substances to "matter" and "mind" (physical and spiritual).
Francis Bacon
Formulated a theory of inductive reasoning, or empiricism, which argued that knowledge had to be pursued through experimentation.
Bernard de Fontenelle
Wrote
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds
Stressed that the human mind is capable of making great progress
Eulogies of Scientists
placed scientists in a higher position than priests.
Pierre Bayle
Concluded in
Historical and Critical Dictionary
that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt (Skepticism).
John Locke
Wrote Essay
Concerning Human Understanding.
Said that all humans are born as a blank slate, or tabula rasa. A persons surroundings and experiences shape their personality.
Thomas Hobbes
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
baron de Montesquieu
Madame du Chatelet
Voltaire
Madame du Chatelet's companion
Popularized the scientific method
Believed in god but not the church.
Believed that god was an observer, not a participant (deism).
Hated religious intolerance
Wrote
Spirit of Laws
as an inquiry of modern social science.
Despotism could be avoided if there was a separation of powers
Voltaire's companion
Was not allowed into the Royal Academy of Sciences because she was a woman, so she learned from private tutors.
She became uncertain of her abilities, so she focused on spreading other's ideas. She translated Newton's Principia into French with her own commentary.
Said that all humans are born inherently evil and everything they do is selfish.
Influenced by Voltaire
Committed to individual freedom
Wrote The Social Contract about the general will and popular sovereignty
Viva La Revolution!
We Don't Need No Government Control
The American Revolution
We're Just A Bunch Of Traitors
Even though the Brits were paying higher taxes than the colonies for helping them with the Native Americans, we still whined about it and dumped a bunch of perfectly good tea into the harbor.
Eventually, after Thomas Jefferson plagiarized John Locke's catchphrase and got 1/3 of the wealthiest colonials hyped up, we gained independence from Britain.
French Revolution
Napoleon Bonaparte
Short Guy With A God Complex
France was divided into three estates- Nobles, clergy, and everyone else. Obviously the third estate was the biggest, but since they voted by estate, not number of people, the third estate was always outvoted. They decided to write a new constitution, and signed the tennis court oath swearing that they wouldn't leave until it was written.
Peasants began to revolt- called the great fear.
27 August 1789, the National Assembly issued The Declaration of the Rights of Man.
7,000 women raided Versailles demanding bread.
In the next two years, the National Assembly pushed a constitutional monarchy, which Louis XVI accepted.
Maximilien Robespierre took the lead.
Sans-Culottes stormed the Bastille, finding about 10 prisoners.
Robspierre founded committee of public safety and established a planned economy.His reign of terror landed Napoleon Bonaparte in the lead.
We Really Need A New Government
Napoleon overthrew the Directory and named himself First Consul, though he later changes his mind and names himself emperor.
Napoleon decided that women were the property of men, probably because he had to compensate for his height.
He decided that it would be oh so smart to invade Russia, who retreated while burning everything in their midst. By the time they arrived in Moscow, it was winter, and Moscow was empty. They were forced to retreat, and since it was winter, 90% of his army froze to death, and Napoleon looked like the idiot he was.
The Quadruple Alliance ( Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain) beats Napoleon, and he is exiled to Elba.
He escapes from Elba, and within 100 days, he is defeated at Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena.
The Industrial Revolution
Origins
The expanding Atlantic economy served British mercantilism well. Canals made it easier to ship products throughout the country.
British Agriculture was second only to the Dutch, so the average person made more money. Since they had more money to spend, they had more money to buy luxury items. Since there was an increase in demand for these items, there was and increased need for efficiency to produce more.
Britain had an effective bank and well developed credit markets.
New Inventions
Factories
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which spin thread when a worker pushed a sliding carriage with one hand and spun a wheel with the other.
Richard Arkwright's water frame spun thick, coarse thread using water power.
Cotton goods became cheaper, so people could afford decent clothing.
Steam Engines
Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen invented the first steam engines. They were used to dig out coal, which was just beginning to be used for energy. These first engines were extremely inefficient.
James Watt realized that adding a separate condenser would make it more efficient.
Steam engines created a boom in the iron industry.
Railroads
New "steam cars" in the 1820's could carry 14 passengers at 10 mph.
In 1830, George Stephenson's Rocket used new railways to go an impressive 16 mph.
The first railway went from Liverpool to Manchester.
More companies began investing in railroads, which enabled goods to be shipped all over the country. Companies could open multiple shops and export their products.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Britain led the world in per capita industrialization until 1913
Companies nationalized and shipped products all over the world.
Economy boomed
Standard of living improved
mostly effected the rich
children were overworked, and child labour laws were introduced
New Ideologies
A Century Of Peace And -Isms
Peace Settlement
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain met at the Congress of Vienna to fashion a peace settlement.
They were lenient with France after Napoleon's defeat and decided that there would be a balance of power. There was no war for 100 years, and this was known as the concert of Europe.
The Romantic Movement
"Romanticism is characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art an personal life."
Romantics rejected materialism and embraced individualism.
Romantic art put an emphasis on nature and oftentimes was passionate and dark.
Germaine de Stael's On Germany emphasized her romantic faith and strong feminist beliefs.
George Sand took her children and left her husband to become a writer. Her book Lelia described her quest for sexual and personal freedom.
Beethoven and Chopin revolutionized modern music.
Early -Isms
Nationalism is a like-minded group of people connected by a common language, culture, religion, and a belief that they have the right to their own country.
Early French socialists believed in economic planning and women's liberation.
Karl Marx augured that the proletariat would take over the bourgeoisie and that there would always be conflict among social classes.
Nation Building
Luis Napoleon Bonaparte III (France) believed that government Should represent the people and help them economically. He a elected for a four year term, but seized power in a coup de e'tat. He supported unions, male suffrage, and better housing for the working classes.
Italy became an official unified state in 1850. Guiseppe Mazzini, Vincenzo Gioberti, and Count Camillo Benso di Cavour helped with unification.
Germany became a unified state by 1853. Wilhelm I led the new country. Otto von Bismarck advised him and created Bismarckian forein policy. This stated that wars should never be fought on two fronts and always with the majority of world powers.
World War 1
"The War to End All Wars"
Origins of War
The Three Emperors League was formed by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
Wilhelm II succeeded Wilhelm I, and fired Bismarck
France and Russia allied militarily
Nationalism was threatening to destroy the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
A member of the Black Hand murdered Archduke Franz-Ferdinand and his wife, which sparked the war.
Fighting the War
The Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia) VS Austria-Hungary and Germany.
First war to use planes
War was mostly fought in trenches.Soldiers would spend weeks on end with heavy artillery being thrown at them, and then young soldiers would go over the top and die.
The Battle of the Somme claimed over 1,100,000 lives, and the German campaign against Verdun cost 1,400,000.
Governments geared economies for total war, where every aspect of a country was centered around the war effort.
Women began leaving home to replace the men at work, and when the men came back, they wanted to keep their jobs. Thus began the movement for social equality between women and men.
The End of the War
Following the Russian Revolution, strikes broke out in Germany. Moderates called for a "peace resolution."
General Ludendorff ignored this, and pushed on France again. They were stopped in July at the Battle of the Marne, where American soldiers finally decided to show up, and helped tip the scales.
They ignored defeat and the emperor formed a more liberal Germany. The German Revolution of 1918 closely resembled the Russian Revolution. In this case, however, the moderate socialists and liberals won.
The Peace Conference began in Paris, with France, Great Britain, and the United States at the head. President Wilson became obsessed with his idea of the League of Nations, while Lloyd George and Clemenceau were mostly focused on punishing Germany.
The resulting Treaty of Versailles gave German colonies to France, Britain, and Japan, and parts of Germany became Poland. The German army was limited to 100,000 men, with no air force. Germany had to pay war reparations and accept responsibility for the war. This is important because Hitler used this to come to power in Germany and start WWII.
The Russian Revolution
Russian citizens were unhappy with Tzar Nicholas II, who really just wanted to be a farmer. He was a terrible leader in WWI, and overall was completely incompetent. The Progressive Bloc called for a new government responsive to the Duma. The Tzar adjourned the Duma temporarily, traveling to the front lines and leaving his wife and ill child alone with the wacko "holy man," Rasputin. After Rasputin was murdered, the empress went into permanent shock, with the message "If I die or you desert me, you will lose the throne and your son within six months" haunting her. People began to revolt. Nicholas abdicated.
Alexander Kerensky became Prime Minister of the provisional government in July, who had to share its power with the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. The Army Order No. 1 stripped army officers of authority and placed their power into the hands of committees of common soldiers.
Vladimir Lenin found his revolutionary faith in Marxian socialism. Lenin denounced the provisional government and formed the Bolsheviks. Eventually, they gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet and seized power. Lenin headed the new "provisional workers' and peasants' government." All the banks and faactories became nationalized, and the Constituent Assembly was disbanded. Trotsky began to rebuild the Russian army, and the capital is moved from Petrograd to Moscow.
A civil war began (White VS Red). Lenin and the Red Army were victorious, and regained Ukraine and Belorussia.
The Age of Anxiety
Art, Psychology, and Depression, Oh My!
Political/Military Aspects
The US loaned money to Germany to pay war reparations through the Dawes Plan(1924). This simultaneously allowed France and Britain to pay the money they owed to the US, since they now had money, while getting money from Germany on interest.
In 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact made war illegal.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President of the United States.
Advances/Social Aspects
Art
Psychology
Science and Technology
Architecture became more functional.
Dadaism, surrealism,expressionism, and extreme impressionism became new forms of art, which was modeled by Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Salvador Dali, among others.
Composers such as Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schonberg brought expressionism into their music.
Sigmund Freud developed new ways to study the mind and human behavior that hadn't really been touched by anyone else.
According to Freud, the human mind is comprised of the id, the ego and the superego. The id is the primitive, subconscious part of the mind that deals with sexual and aggressive desire. The ego is the rational part of the brain, and the superego is the moral part of the brain.
By 1903, silent movies began hitting American movie theatres.
Business people and directors set up "movie factories" in New York and Los Angeles.
Wireless communication and the vacuum tube enabled radio to transmit public broadcasts in Great Britain and the US. GB set up the British Broadcasting Corporation (Doctor Who!!).
The Great Depression (1929-1939)
The stock market crash in the US triggered the collapse into the Great depression.
In GB, 33% of the workforce was unemployed by 1932. In the US, industrial production fell by 50%.
FDR implemented the National Recovery Administration, or NRA (no, its not the National Rifle Association). This failed, so he tried the Works Progress Administration (WPA). At one point, 1/5 of the labour force worked for them.
Scandinavian countries responded most successfully. They imposed social reform , first taxing the rich, then everyone else. Raising taxes solved their economic problems.
World War Two
This Wasn't Supposed To Happen Again
New Dictatorships
Nazi Germany
Fascist Italy
Communist Russia
Nazism grew from extreme racism and nationalism.
After Adolf Hitler was arrested for revolting against the government, he decided that he would come to power legally. He focused on building the Nazi party and took advantage of the Great Depression. By 1932, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichtag, and by 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany. The Enabling Act gave him absolute dictatorial power.
Russian Revolution inspired Italy's socialist movement. Benito Mussolini and his army of Black Shirts pushed the socialists out of the government.
In 1922, the Black Shirts threatened Victor Emanuel II, who asked Mussolini to create a new cabinet.
Joseph Stalin came to power after Lenin's death.
His "revolutions from above" implemented five year plans to get The Soviet Union caught up with the rest of the Western world.
Stalin exiled Trotsky, who died in Mexico.
Kulaks were sent off into work camps along with anyone who opposed the government.
Soviet workers received old age pensions and free education.
During Stalin's Great Purges, 8 million people died or were sent to work camps.
He replaced them with 1.5 million new government officials.
WWII
Nazis murdered the Austrian chancellor.
Hitler implemented the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived Jews of citizenship.
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and received support from Hitler.
Nazis invaded the Rhineland and Austria.
Britain appeased Hitler by giving him the Sudetenland.
Nazi invaded Poland.
Britain and France declared war on Germany.
America's policy of Europe First solidified the anti-Hitler campaign.
The Allies adopted the principle of unconditional surrender towards Germany and Japan.
The Soviet Union defeated most of the German armies, while the US's bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki forced surrender from the Japanese.
The Cold War
It Was A Figuratively Cold War
Political Stuff
Social Stuff
Science Stuff
The US formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) of Western governments.
The Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact as a counter.
US Secretary of State formed the Marshall Plan to aid Western Europe's economy.
When Stalin died, Khrushchev took power.
The Soviet Union planted missiles in Cuba pointing towards Florida.
The US implemented a naval blockade, and the USSR backed down.
The Soviet Union fell during Gorbachev's rule.
Population stopped growing due to women involving themselves in the workforce.
Child care occupied smaller portions of women's lives.
Youth became rebellious against parents and authority figures.
Early Beatniks worshiped Elvis, James Dean, and Jack Kerouac.
Rock music tied the youth counterculture together. The Beatles! Bob Dylan!
Students in Paris rebelled for education reforms.
Big Science combined theoretical work with engineering.
The Space Race with the Soviets landed the Apollo 11 on the moon in 1969.
Science became more specialized.
Televisions, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, and stereos became common household objects.
The Persistence of Memory~ Salvador Dali
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