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Southeast Asia: 8000 BCE-1750 CE
Transcript of Southeast Asia: 8000 BCE-1750 CE
Southeast Asia: 8000 BCE-1750 CE
Dominant people in SE Asia
Knowledge of monsoon winds, used canoes to migrate around Indian and Pacific Oceans to settle thousands of islands
Clustered around riverbanks (fish) and near rain forests (to provide animals, plants)
Early center of bronze metallurgy
Small political units grew out of need to regulate water resources, since critical for survival
First major SE center, approx. 100 CE- 600 CE
Key point on trade route between China and India, place for merchants to rest and recover while waiting for shift in monsoon winds (charged merchants taxes/fees )
SE trades aromatic woods, resins, spices (nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper)
Rise of Hindu-Buddhist culture
imported from India
Rulers mobilized large organized labor force for irrigation channels and flood prevention, had walled cities, palaces and written archives
Indian Ocean Trade
SE Asia, especially Malacca Straight, important route connecting India to China
Lower volume of trade than Mediterranean Sea as well as no network of colonies with home ties.
Trade flourished in port cities where culture diffused and blended—intermarriages and cultures
Used monsoon winds and triangular lateen sails (later dhows and junks)
Northern Vietnam known as "Annam"
Highly influenced by Tang and Song China
Confucian bureaucratic training
Mahayana Buddhism (India-->China-->Vietnam)
Champa was a rival state in southern Vietnam
More influenced by Indian Ocean cultures (Indian religion, language, architecture, and dress)
Spread Champa rice to Song China via tributary system (high-yielding rice strain)
Vietnam under Mongols
Before invasion of Mongols Annam (northern Vietnam) and Champa (southern Vietnam) fought frequently
Mongols conquered both regions and required tribute from them from 1257-1368
After the Mongols fell, fighting resumed and Annam was able to conquer Champa by 1500
The ancestor of modern state of Vietnam (still called Annam) had been created
Still relied on Confucian bureaucratic exams
Preserved group-landownership, village-based decision making, as well as women's property rights
Encounters with European Exploration
In 1511, Portuguese seized Malacca (an important trading center)
Portuguese used control of port cities to enforce a trading monopoly
required all spices and goods to be carried in Portuguese ships
required merchants who entered their ports to carry Portuguese passports and pay taxes
Muslims in SE Asia
Muslim traders have been in SE Asia since as early as the 700s CE, but remained dominated by Indian culture for many years
Clear indications of conversion and
begin around the 1300s and continue from there
In the port of Malacca one early ruler converted from Hinduism to Islam and encouraged its spread
Sulu Empire (1768-1848) was a Muslim empire based in the Southern Phillipines
Acheh Sultanate in northern Sumatra peaked in 1600s was also ruled by Muslim leaders
Sufi preachers and merchants probably had largest role in its spread
Over time SE transforms from a mostly Hindu-Buddhist influence to having a stronger Muslim influence.
SE Asia became increasingly diverse as multiple ethnicities and religious groups migrated to the area.
Cultural development in SE Asia is highly influenced by Indian Ocean trading partners.
SE continues to play a vital role in Indian Ocean commerce and acts as a center of trade.