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Copy of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961)
Transcript of Copy of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961)
by: Mariel Angelica M. Basco
Three basic assumptions:
1.) There is a limited number of common human problems for which all people must at all times find some solution
2.) While there is variability in solutions of all the problems, it is neither limitless nor random but is definitely variable within a range of possible solutions
3.) All alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred
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Harms, W. (2005). The University of Chichago: News Office. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/05/050819.strodtbeck.shtml.
Mead, R. & Andrews, T (2009). International Management. 4th edition. England: John Wiley & Sons L.t.d, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ.
Hills, M. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Values Orientation Theory. Online Readings in Psychology anf Culture, 4(4).
1932: Married to Clyde Kluckhohn (semi-famous anthropologist)
1941: PhD from Harvard University
1960: Clyde died
1961: Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck published variations in Value Orientations
1986: Florence Kluckhohn died
1986: Colleagues started a center in Seattles, Washington called Florence Kluckhohn Center for the Study of Values
Fred Strodtbeck (1919-2005)
a professor in the Department of Sociology and Psychology at the University of Chicago
Director of the Social Psychology Training Program and the Social Psychology Laboratory
a professor at the Law School
He was authority on what is now known as microsociology
What is the nature of people?
Good/mutable - basically good, but subject to corruption. Optimistic/Theory Y
Good/immutable - basically good and will always remain so. Optimistic/Theory Y
Evil/mutable - born evil, but can learn to be good. However danger of regression always present. Pessimistic/Theory X
Evil/immutable - born evil and incapable of being changed. Therefore requires salvation by an external force. Pessimistic/Theory X
Mixture - has both good and evil traits
What is the relationship between Humanity and its natural environment?
Dominant - we can and should exercise total control over the forces of, and in, nature and the super-natural
Harmony - we can and should exercise partial but not total control by living a balance with the natural forces
Subjugation - we cannot and should not exercise control over natural forces but, rather, are subject to the higher power to these forces
Value Orientation Theory
Studies Texan, Mexican and Native-American cultures in the American Southwest
was set out to the values concept developed by Florence's husband, Clyde Kluckhohn
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck claim that members of a group exhibit constant "orientations" towards the world and other people
What is the person's relationship to other people?
What is the modality of human activity?
What is the temporal focus of human activity?
What is the conception of space?
Lineal (hierarchical) - emphasis on hierarchical principles and deferring to higher authority or authorities within the group
Collateral (collectivists) - emphasis on consensus within the extended group of equals
Individualistic - emphasis on the individual or individual families within the group who make decisions independently from others
Doing - our motivation is external to us, emphasizing activity that is both valued by ourselves and is approved by others in our group
Being - our motivation is internal, emphasizing activity valued by our self but not necessarily by others in the group
Containing - motivation is to develop and grow abilities which are valued by us, although not necessarily by others
Future - we focus on the future (the time to come), planning ahead and seeking new ways to replace the old
Present - we focus on the present (what is now) and on accomodating changes in beliefs and traditions
Past - we focus on the past (the time before now) and on preserving and maintaining traditional teachings and beliefs
Private - respect for personal ownership; what is private is valued
Public - public meetings are valued
Mixed - private and public activities are distinguished