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Transcript of Latin Grammar
Indirect questions are used to passively
phrase a question without actually
They utilize the
, merely in the same tense that you would use in English.
They are similar to result clauses, but the indirect question part of the sentence is
introduced with a
instead of with "ut".
Before the question word comes a verb like:
Rogo-- I ask
Audio-- I hear
Nescio-- I don't know
The gerundive is a
, always seen in the
As all adjectives, it agrees with its subject in gender, number, and case
It is declined like a 1st and 2nd conjugation adjective
It has three main uses:
in which it is used with a notion of necessity, obligation, or propriety
with a direct object
+ acc. and gen. +
causa - to express purpose
In the passive periphrastic
- used with
in the future passive peripherastic conjugation, also to express necessity
are those that give words of feeling, thinking, telling, knowing, etc. to a direct quote, making it
are also reported statements,
given, not just a statement.
Indirect commands are forms of "ut clauses" in which subordinate clauses are
introduced by "ut"
is seen in the
"ne" is the negative form of "ut"
Indirect Commands are
rogo- I ask
moneo- I advise/warn
Impero- I order
When not working as a preposition to indicate the ablative,
and is translated as
Original Question Phrase
do you walk over there?
(Cur es ambulas ibi?)
As Indirect question
I don't know
you walk over there.
(Nescio cur es
moves to the middle
of the sentence, and the preceding phrase sets it up in the
indicative, a statement instead of a question
So now let's practice it in action...
Rule of thumb:
Question word (in middle of sentence) + Subjunctive (same tense as English)
Here's how we see it translated in English
I want to know
you have come to the city.
ad urbem? -
have you come to the city?
is perfect subjunctive - translated "you have"
To form the gerundive
stem of the verb:
add -ndus, -a, -um
-iendus, -a, um
with I-stems and 4th conjugation
The man is worthy of being praised
that we will make into a
laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatus
= to praise
it shall describe:
Vir, viri m.
= nom. sing. masc.
* So now, the verbal adjective (gerundive) must match!
stem of verb:
matches the nom. sing. masc. ending of the noun
laudandus vir est!
I have books that
* sense of necessity- gerundive!
: liber, libri m.-- libros (books)
: lego, legere, legi, lectus (to read)
(verb acting as adj.)
verb stem: lege+nd
-os ending matches masc. pl. acc. ending of noun
what kind of books are they?
: books needing to be read
~ Latin Sentence:
Libros legendos habeo
(other uses of gerundive)
With direct object
gerundive is preferred over gerund when D.O's are involved
He flees by climbing a tree
-- the D.O= tree,
f. abl. sing.
the gerundive= ascende+nd
-matches the D.O= abl. f. sing. ending
With ad +
causa venit. --
he comes for the sake of
books being read
Librorum legendorum-- of books being read= gen. pl. m
is one that
cannot stand alone
There are 4 types of cum clauses
With the indicative,
Cum Temporal Clause
-- decides when the main verb happened, uses the word "when"
With the subjunctive:
Cum Causal Clause
-- tells what caused the main verb to happen, uses "when" or "since"
Cum Circumstantial Clause
-- tells the circumstances that surround the main verb, uses "when"
Cum Adversative Clause
-- describes what hindered or might have hindered the main verb from happening, uses "although"
Caesar occisus est, multi Romani tristissimi erant
Caesar was killed, many Romans were very sad.
Cum is used here to tell
when in time
the main verb, the Romans being saddened, occurred --
Caesar praefectus in Gallia
Caesar was governor in Gaul, there was peace.
is used here,
with a subjunctive verb
because Romans considered circumstances vague, open to translation, to answer
there was peace--
under the circumstances
that Caesar was governor
Dux urbem dedidit
hostes extra portas
The general surrendered the city
the enemy were outside the gates.
is used here, with a
, to answer
the general surrendered-
because the enemy
was outside the gates, which
the forces of the enemy were greater, the Romans
is used here, with a
introduce a contradictory statement
that is to follow, which
might have stopped the main verb
Rome's defeat, from occurring, and then
it : The enemy's forces were greater,
Rome won. It is accompanied by the conjunction "nevertheless" to balance out the "although"
Conditional Sentences are
where "if" says
"under the condition that..."
They have two structures:
(contrary to fact)
Factual statements are in the
mood, while contrafactual statements are seen in the
mood, regardless of tense.
, ea eum
, ea eum
(had at one point)
(had at one point)
. -- if he
both halves of the sentence, the
parts, match in the
If he had worked, he would have desired money--
: Don't Speak!
: They told him
loqueretur - loqueretur=
: He pursuaded me
I come (to come)
venirem - venirem=
http://virdrinksbeer.com/page29.htm#intro-- indirect questions
http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/whprax/w33con.html- conditional sentences
http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Latins20/2.C.htm-- conditional sentences
http://www.dl.ket.org/latin3/grammar/indirectcom-ch50.htm-- Indirect command
http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/101/UtClauses.pdf-- indirect command
Hull, Clifford A., Steven R. Perkins, and Tracy Barr. "Latin For Dummies." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <https://books.google.com/books?id=Jmdmv6sjSEoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=asking%2Bwhy%2Bquestions%2Bin%2Blatin&source=bl&ots=dWb2-TQ7tJ&sig=FjyfG4KA2ywrni5AO99UkKAaMBs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CHUQ6AEwD2oVChMIgLDgmJmJxgIVijKsCh3mbwB7#v=onepa>.
"Learn Latin Vocab - INDIRECT QUESTION." VDB. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://virdrinksbeer.com/page29.htm#intro-- indirect questions>.
"Learn Latin Vocab - GERUNDS & GERUNDIVES." VDB. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://virdrinksbeer.com/page43.htm#gerundives>.
Cum Clause Sources
In Early Latin, The Romans Used A Conjunction. "Cum Clauses." Cum Clauses: Temporal and Circumstantial (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 14 June 2014. <https://www.stcharlesprep.org/01_parents/oneil_j/Useful%20Links/Latin%20II%20Class%20Notes/Notes/class2-37.pdf>.
Copy & paste citation
Conditional Sentence Sources
Pavur, Claude. "Latin Conditional Clauses: Factual and Contrary-to-Fact." Latin Conditional Clauses: Factual and Contrary-to-Fact. St. Louis University, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/whprax/w33con.html>.
"Intensive Latin." Intensive Latin. Bates College, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Latins20/2.C.htm>.
Indirect command Sources
"Indirect Commands." KET DL. Grammatica, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://www.dl.ket.org/latin3/grammar/indirectcom-ch50.htm>.
"Ut Clauses of Purpose, Result, and Indirect Command." Ut Clauses of Purpose, Result and Indirect Command (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 14 June 2015.