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Latin Grammar

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Lamer cucumber

on 15 June 2015

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Transcript of Latin Grammar

Forming indirect questions
Indirect questions are used to passively
phrase a question without actually
asking
the question.

They utilize the
subjunctive
, merely in the same tense that you would use in English.

They are similar to result clauses, but the indirect question part of the sentence is
introduced with a
question word
,
instead of with "ut".

Before the question word comes a verb like:
Rogo-- I ask
Audio-- I hear
Nescio-- I don't know
Indirect Questions
Gerundive
The gerundive is a
verbal adjective
, always seen in the
passive
tense

As all adjectives, it agrees with its subject in gender, number, and case

It is declined like a 1st and 2nd conjugation adjective

It has three main uses:
as a
simple adjective
in which it is used with a notion of necessity, obligation, or propriety
with a direct object

ad
+ acc. and gen. +
causa - to express purpose
In the passive periphrastic
- used with
sum
in the future passive peripherastic conjugation, also to express necessity

Indirect Commands
Indirect Statements
are those that give words of feeling, thinking, telling, knowing, etc. to a direct quote, making it
indirect.


Thus,
Indirect Commands
are also reported statements,
reporting a
command
given, not just a statement.

Indirect commands are forms of "ut clauses" in which subordinate clauses are
introduced by "ut"
and the
verb
is seen in the
subjunctive
.
*N.B. -
"ne" is the negative form of "ut"


Indirect Commands are
introduced by
words like:
rogo- I ask
moneo- I advise/warn
Impero- I order


Cum Clause
When not working as a preposition to indicate the ablative,
cum
introduces a
subordinate clause
and is translated as
when
,
since
,
or
although
Laura Braley-
Latin IV

Latin Grammar
Conditional Sentences
Original Question Phrase
:
Why
do you walk over there?
(Cur es ambulas ibi?)

As Indirect question
:
I don't know

why
you walk over there.
(Nescio cur es
ambule
ibi.)

The
question word
, "why"
moves to the middle
of the sentence, and the preceding phrase sets it up in the
indicative, a statement instead of a question
.


So now let's practice it in action...
Rule of thumb:
Question word (in middle of sentence) + Subjunctive (same tense as English)
Here's how we see it translated in English
Indirect Question
:

Volo scire

cur
ad urbem
veneris
-
I want to know

why
you have come to the city.
Direct Question:
Cur
veneris
ad urbem? -
Why
have you come to the city?
veneris
is perfect subjunctive - translated "you have"
To form the gerundive

To the

stem of the verb:
add -ndus, -a, -um

*
-iendus, -a, um
with I-stems and 4th conjugation

Let's Practice!
Let's say:
The man is worthy of being praised


Verb

that we will make into a
gerundive
:
laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatus
= to praise

Noun
it shall describe:
Vir, viri m.
= nom. sing. masc.
* So now, the verbal adjective (gerundive) must match!

stem of verb:
lauda
+nd
us
=
-us ending
matches the nom. sing. masc. ending of the noun

Final sentence
:
laudandus vir est!






Examples
Ex.
~
I have books that
must
be read
* sense of necessity- gerundive!


Noun
: liber, libri m.-- libros (books)

Gerundive
: lego, legere, legi, lectus (to read)
(verb acting as adj.)


verb stem: lege+nd
os
-os ending matches masc. pl. acc. ending of noun

Legendos
describes
the books--
what kind of books are they?
: books needing to be read


~ Latin Sentence:
Libros legendos habeo




More Examples
(other uses of gerundive)
With direct object
:
gerundive is preferred over gerund when D.O's are involved

Ex.


Effugit
arbore
ascendenda -
He flees by climbing a tree
-- the D.O= tree,
arbore
f. abl. sing.

the gerundive= ascende+nd
a

-matches the D.O= abl. f. sing. ending

With ad +
acc
.
or
gen. +
causa
Ex.
Librorum legendorum
causa venit. --
he comes for the sake of

books being read


Librorum legendorum-- of books being read= gen. pl. m
.
* Reminder:
a
subordinate clause
is one that
cannot stand alone
There are 4 types of cum clauses

With the indicative,
Cum Temporal Clause
-- decides when the main verb happened, uses the word "when"

With the subjunctive:
Cum Causal Clause
-- tells what caused the main verb to happen, uses "when" or "since"

Cum Circumstantial Clause
-- tells the circumstances that surround the main verb, uses "when"

Cum Adversative Clause
-- describes what hindered or might have hindered the main verb from happening, uses "although"
Examples

Cum

Temporal
Clause
Cum
Caesar occisus est, multi Romani tristissimi erant
When
Caesar was killed, many Romans were very sad.

Cum is used here to tell
when in time
the main verb, the Romans being saddened, occurred --
following
Caesar's death

Cum

Circumstantial

Clause
Cum
Caesar praefectus in Gallia
esset
,
erat pax.
When
Caesar was governor in Gaul, there was peace.
Cum
is used here,
with a subjunctive verb
because Romans considered circumstances vague, open to translation, to answer
when
there was peace--
under the circumstances
that Caesar was governor

Cum
Causal
Clause
Dux urbem dedidit
cum
hostes extra portas
essent
.
The general surrendered the city
since
the enemy were outside the gates.
Cum
is used here, with a
subjunctive
, to answer
why
the general surrendered-
because the enemy
was outside the gates, which
caused
him to

Cum
Concessive
Clause
Cum
copiae hostium
essent
majores, Romani
tamen
eas vicerunt.
Although
the forces of the enemy were greater, the Romans
nevertheless
defeated them.
Cum
is used here, with a
subjunctive
, to

introduce a contradictory statement
that is to follow, which
might have stopped the main verb
,
Rome's defeat, from occurring, and then
concessing
it : The enemy's forces were greater,
but
Rome won. It is accompanied by the conjunction "nevertheless" to balance out the "although"
Conditional Sentences are
"if-then" statements
where "if" says
"under the condition that..."

then...
"will occur"


They have two structures:
Factual
, and
Contrafactual
(contrary to fact)

Factual statements are in the
indicative
mood, while contrafactual statements are seen in the
subjunctive
mood, regardless of tense.

Examples-

Factual
:
1.)
Si
Marcus Juliam
amat
, ea eum
amat
.-
If
Marcus
loves
Julia,
(then)

she loves
him.

2.)
Si
Marcus Juliam
amavit
, ea eum
amavit
.-
If
Marcus
(had at one point)
loved Julia,
(then)
she
(had at one point)
loved him.

Contrafactual
:
1.)

Si

laboret
, pecuniam
optet
. -- if he
should
work,
(then)
he
would
desire money--
both halves of the sentence, the
cause
and the
effect
parts, match in the
present subjunctive

2.)
Si

laboravisset
, pecuniam
optavisset--
If he had worked, he would have desired money--
pluperfect subjunctive



Examples
Direct Command
: Don't Speak!
Indirect Command
: They told him
not to
speak.

Dixerunt
ne
loqueretur - loqueretur=
subjunctive
Direct Command
: Come!
Indirect Command
: He pursuaded me
that
I come (to come)

Mihi persuasit
ut
venirem - venirem=
subjunctive


.
Sources
https://books.google.com/books?id=Jmdmv6sjSEoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=asking+why+questions+in+latin&source=bl&ots=dWb2-TQ7tJ&sig=FjyfG4KA2ywrni5AO99UkKAaMBs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CHUQ6AEwD2oVChMIgLDgmJmJxgIVijKsCh3mbwB7#v=onepage&q=asking%20why%20questions%20in%20latin&f=false


http://virdrinksbeer.com/page29.htm#intro-- indirect questions
http://virdrinksbeer.com/page43.htm#gerundives
https://www.stcharlesprep.org/01_parents/oneil_j/Useful%20Links/Latin%20II%20Class%20Notes/Notes/class2-37.pdf-- Cum
http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/whprax/w33con.html- conditional sentences
http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Latins20/2.C.htm-- conditional sentences
http://www.dl.ket.org/latin3/grammar/indirectcom-ch50.htm-- Indirect command
http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/101/UtClauses.pdf-- indirect command
Hull, Clifford A., Steven R. Perkins, and Tracy Barr. "Latin For Dummies." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <https://books.google.com/books?id=Jmdmv6sjSEoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=asking%2Bwhy%2Bquestions%2Bin%2Blatin&source=bl&ots=dWb2-TQ7tJ&sig=FjyfG4KA2ywrni5AO99UkKAaMBs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CHUQ6AEwD2oVChMIgLDgmJmJxgIVijKsCh3mbwB7#v=onepa>.

"Learn Latin Vocab - INDIRECT QUESTION." VDB. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://virdrinksbeer.com/page29.htm#intro-- indirect questions>.
Sources-
Indirect Questions

Gerundive Sources
"Learn Latin Vocab - GERUNDS & GERUNDIVES." VDB. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://virdrinksbeer.com/page43.htm#gerundives>.
Cum Clause Sources
In Early Latin, The Romans Used A Conjunction. "Cum Clauses." Cum Clauses: Temporal and Circumstantial (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 14 June 2014. <https://www.stcharlesprep.org/01_parents/oneil_j/Useful%20Links/Latin%20II%20Class%20Notes/Notes/class2-37.pdf>.
Copy & paste citation
Conditional Sentence Sources
Pavur, Claude. "Latin Conditional Clauses: Factual and Contrary-to-Fact." Latin Conditional Clauses: Factual and Contrary-to-Fact. St. Louis University, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/whprax/w33con.html>.

"Intensive Latin." Intensive Latin. Bates College, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Latins20/2.C.htm>.
Indirect command Sources
"Indirect Commands." KET DL. Grammatica, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015. <http://www.dl.ket.org/latin3/grammar/indirectcom-ch50.htm>.

"Ut Clauses of Purpose, Result, and Indirect Command." Ut Clauses of Purpose, Result and Indirect Command (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 14 June 2015.
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